Dong Qichang (1555-1636), The word Xuanzai , No. Sibai 、 Xiang Guang Ju Shi , Huating ( Today, Songjiang District, Shanghai ) people . stay 17 In the history of Chinese calligraphy and painting in the early 20th century , He is the most important one . Dong Qichang 17 Learning books at the age of ,23 Learn painting at the age of , Like to meditate and talk about Taoism .30 I entered the official career at the age of ,1589 He will get the first place in the second class in Beijing in , To the Imperial Academy , Official to the Ministry of rites in Nanjing , To retire as a crown prince . During this period, he has retired many times , Fu lived idle for more than 20 years . His career broadened the scope of his friends , The improvement of personal social status and economic prosperity , It also puts him in the ranks of collectors , It provides sufficient resources for his study of painting history . The famous works he once collected are Dong Yuan 《 Xiaoxiang picture 》《 The picture of longsu country people 》, Zhao Linghu 《 The picture of Qingxia in Jiangxiang 》, Zhao mengpin 《 The autumn picture of magpie and China 》, Huang Gongwang 《 Fuchun Mountain Residence 》 etc. . The works are 《 Sketching in Zen room 》《 Rongtaiji 》《 Painting purport 》《 Eye painting 》 etc. .
On the road of learning painting and calligraphy , He is based on copying and archaizing , Look for new ideas and inspiration from ancient calligraphy and painting works , Therefore, he can make a breakthrough in the pursuit of formal beauty of pen and ink , Create a new generation of calligraphy and painting , It has a plain and mellow aesthetic style . in other words , The cultivation of ancient calligraphy and painting works is the key to the transcendence of its concept and form . As far as its painting art is concerned , He did not follow the natural landscape , But through the description of natural images to build the noumenon of painting . The truth of his drawings constructed with pen and ink is his purport , So as to realize the reality of art . His artistic views and aesthetic thoughts are very rich , And with obvious complexity and contradiction , Especially his proposal “ The north and South are divided ” On , Its core “ Fenzong said ” Zen metaphor painting , From the perspective of artistic style and aesthetic concept , The development history of landscape painting is divided into South 、 Beierzong , And worship “ south ” Depreciate ‘“ north ” The meaning of . It has attracted extensive attention and discussion in the field of calligraphy and painting , Even today .
Although the style of his calligraphy inscriptions and postscripts is changeable , But it is still dominated by the ancient light and elegant style . He studied calligraphy and calligraphy , It is generally believed , Yan Zhenqing, a beginner of regular script 、 Yu Shinan , Later learning 《 Huang Ting Jing 》 And Zhong you in regular script , With the meaning of running script ; Take the two kings of the law 、 c 、 Huaisu 、 Yang Ning style and Mi Fu . Although his style of inscriptions and postscripts shows his artistic face , But we can still see the legacy rules of the ancients . This explanation , The influence of past pen and ink experience on his calligraphy has not disappeared , The essence of ancient law has melted into his own pen and ink character .
The inscriptions and postscripts in the landscape album or vertical axis are mostly in cursive or regular script , The position is often in the white space above the foreground , Or left or right , Or three or two lines or dozens of lines , Either thick or light , His use and control of these formal elements first depends on the picture composition and layout , The second is the posture and style of the objects in the painting . The writing of inscriptions and postscripts further improves the composition and layout of the picture , It enriches the aesthetic form in the painting , It awakens the calligraphy meaning of depicting objects and images , Therefore, it can further radiate the elegance and morale in the painting . As Dong Qichang said : Scholars paint , It should be based on the method of Cao Li's strange words . Trees bend like iron , Mountains are like picturesque sand . Never go to the sweet and vulgar way , It's for morale .” in other words , The combination of painting and calligraphy is one of the reasons for the mutual reflection and beauty of its clear and moist landscape and the plain style of inscriptions and postscripts in the isomorphic space . The text content of the inscription and postscript gives the theme of the painting a corresponding text , So that the viewer can learn from its “ Gu Dan ” A deeper thought and emotion can be seen in the artistic style of . In the space of isomorphism of calligraphy and painting , The formal beauty of their pen and ink evokes the viewer's awareness of the past 、 Today's pen and ink have an infinite aftertaste of interest .
He expressed his inner interest with his unique charm , It reflects the independent aesthetic value of pen and ink form . Will the book 、 draw 、 The image form expression of poetry and prose has pushed to a new stage .