《 Border town 》 It's Shen Congwen's masterpiece , Included in the 20 Century Chinese Novels 100 strong , Second place , Second only to Lu Xun 《 to shout 》. It uses 20 century 30 In the 1980s, Chadong, a small town in the border town of Sichuan and Hunan, was set as the background , With the beautiful style of lyric and essay , It describes the unique local conditions and customs of Western Hunan ; The pure love story of Cuicui, a young boatman girl , It shows the goodness and beauty of human nature . because 《 Border town 》 The aesthetic art of ,《 Border town 》 This novel has a unique position in the history of modern Chinese literature .
《 Border town 》 Written in 1931 year , That's the season for Shen Congwen's love and career .1931 Although the society was in turmoil in 1949 , But on the whole, it's a little bit peaceful , At this time, Chinese literati with conscience , Thinking about the nature of human nature , Naturally, Shen Congwen is at the forefront , therefore , He hopes that through his impression of Xiangxi , It describes a small town in Xiangxi, which is similar to Taohuayuan , Give a clear way to the confused humanity in urban civilization . There is still pure and natural love in the world , Life needs to be converted to nature .
The archetype of Cuicui, the heroine in the work , It's a girl in a pile shop . Shen Congwen is on the March , There is a good friend named Zhao Kaiming , I met a girl named Cuicui in a wool shop in Luxi County , She's pretty . Zhao Kaiming vowed to marry her .17 After year , Shen Congwen's boat stops at Luxi again . He's standing in the bow , Recalling the beautiful image of Cuicui , He went to the pile shop , In front of the door, I saw a girl who was very similar to Cuicui , Familiar eyes 、 nose 、 Thin mouth . Shen Congwen was too surprised to speak . It turns out that this is Cuicui's daughter Xiaocui . Cui Cui married Zhao Kaiming who was pursuing her . By this time she was dead , Leave father and daughter . In order not to disturb Zhao Kaiming , Shen Congwen didn't say hello to him , But the emotional shock can't be cured for a long time . Cuicui , This is beautiful 、 Simple girl , He could never forget .1934 year , He's sitting in the yard , Write between the shadows of the branches and leaves of jujube and locust trees in the sun 《 Border town 》 when , The image of Cuicui is on the paper . Shen Congwen is in 《 Hunan travel notes · Wife 》 I mentioned ：“ I am writing 《 Border town 》 Story time , Minghui, the granddaughter of the ferryboat, is gentle , From the pile shop girl .”
《 Border town 》 It describes the unique customs and customs of Western Hunan with the beautiful brushwork of both Lyric Poems and essays . Mainly in the following two aspects ：
One is delicate psychological description . Psychological description is the character's will in a specific environment 、 Description of inner activities such as wishes, thoughts and feelings . Or unfold the character's beautiful heart , Or expose the ugly souls of the characters , To show the character's mental state and personality characteristics . There are many ways ： Or through dialogue 、 Monologue 、 action 、 Posture 、 Facial expression and other direct analysis ; Or fantasy 、 Dreams reveal indirectly ; Or with the help of scenery description 、 The atmosphere rendering and the reflection of the surrounding characters, etc . There are two ways of this article ： One is through the fantasy of the characters 、 Dreams reveal people's psychology . Cuicui is strange “ make blind and disorderly conjectures ”, It makes people feel the loneliness of a girl who gradually has her own psychology , And the restlessness of the heart when love sprouts ; Cuicui “ Top beauty top sweetness ” My dream , Show the sweet feeling of hazy love and subconscious yearning for love .
The second is the poetic and picturesque description of the environment . Environmental description in Novels , It not only sets off the psychological activities of the characters, but also immerses their emotions in a poetic atmosphere , And show us the unique fresh and beautiful natural scenery of the Western Hunan border . In the author's writing , The yellow warbler with a sweet cry 、 The sound of insects 、 Beautiful evening 、 The silver moon …… It's picturesque , beautiful . These are naturally unfolded with the fluctuation of the character's emotional world . Or with the tenderness of dusk 、 Beauty and peace , Contrast the inner agitation of Cuicui's love 、 Lonely and thin desolation ; Or in the soft moonlight 、 A thin layer of white fog floating on the stream 、 The silent duet of insects , Contrast Cuicui's ardent expectation of Nuo song , And the purity and obscurity of a girl's love .
subject 《 Border town 》 Shen Congwen on whom he reposes “ beautiful ” And “ Love ” My aesthetic ideal , It is one of his novels that can best express the beauty of human nature .《 Border town 》 The virtues that have been preserved in the traditional culture that has been highly praised , It is relative to the destruction of traditional virtues in modern society , Everywhere is full of material desire, the shallowness of monetarism 、 The reality of vulgarity and corruption .《 Border town 》 Description of Xiangxi , The natural scenery is beautiful 、 The folkway is simple , People don't talk about grades , Let's not talk about utility , People treat each other sincerely , Love each other . Grandfather's love for his granddaughter 、 Cuicui's pure love for Nuo 、 Tianbao brothers' sincere love for Cuicui and brothers' sincere brotherhood love , These represent the traditional virtues of unpolluted agricultural civilization . The author tries his best to describe the natural purity of Xiangxi , It is also to describe the purity of the soul of Xiangxi people .《 Border town 》 Write a song to propose 、 Let's get married 、 My grandfather and Cuicui are dependent on each other , These Xiangxi people's life form and way of life , It's all about old virtues in real life 、 The pain of losing values , And the criticism of modern civilization's excessive material desires . The author emphasizes the life style of Xiangxi people , Also want to rebuild the national morality and personality .
“ From Sichuan to Hunan , There is an official road to the East . This official road is close to the Western Hunan border, to a place called “ Chadong ” When I was in a small mountain city , The drizzle is still falling , There is a lot of smoke on the stream , There is a small white tower by the stream , It's under the tower — A single family . There is only one old man in this family , A girl ,— A yellow dog .” So the story of the border town begins .