The last Hall of the Tang Dynasty was discovered in 1937

2021-02-23 03:00:28  作者:Photography travel works

“ The tall gate , All of a sudden, it opened up for us . There are seven spans inside , Even more brilliant in the dark . On a big platform , There is a sitting statue of a Bodhisattva , His waiters stood around him , It's like a fairy forest .”—— Liang Sicheng

1937 year , Wutai County, Shanxi Province .

Although it's summer , Cool in the mountains . A team of people followed the narrow and rugged mountain road , Walking alone in the mountains . in the twinkling of an eye , The twilight died down in the twilight , The old temple is only one door away from them . Pick up the steps and go up , A huge palace building came into view . Look up at the plaque in the hall , They saw a few big characters :

Buddha light Zhenrong temple

This is a shining moment in the history of Chinese architecture —— This one look , Looking forward to 1100 years .


Plaque in the East Hall of Foguang temple

This group of people , There are Mr. Liang Sicheng, a famous architect, and his wife 、 Mr. Lin Huiyin, an architect , And several other members of the China Construction Society . There's only one reason they're here : Looking for Tang Dynasty architecture in China .

But they didn't mean to be the first people to come here . As early as 1927 year , Japanese scholar Masao guanno has been here , But after some investigation , He didn't think that the East Hall of Foguang temple was built in the Tang Dynasty , It asserts that there are no buildings in Tang Dynasty and earlier in China , Only Japan has buildings of the same period of the Tang Dynasty .


The first picture of Foguang temple ,1927 Photo by Ye Zhen at the end of the year (《 * * the cultural heritage of China 》)

This remark , It has been lingering in Liang Sicheng's mind , And in these tense years of Sino Japanese ethnic relations , This is not just a contest between academics , It's mixed with politics 、 The various contradictions between nations . from 1932 The investigation of dule temple in Jixian County began in , Liang and Lin have visited hundreds of counties and cities in China 1800 More than one ancient building , But there is no trace of Tang Dynasty architecture , Naturally, there is no proof that there are still Tang Dynasty buildings in China . This time, , They are influenced by the Wutai Mountain map 【1】 Guidelines , Come to Wutai Area in Shanxi Province, which is relatively far away from the war in Chinese history , Looking for traces of Tang Dynasty architecture .


The roof of the East Hall has eaves 3.96 rice , This kind of depth disappeared after the Song Dynasty

See the main hall for the first time , Look at the grandeur of its brackets , Far reaching out of the eaves , We can see that its age is very ancient , But this is not enough to date its construction . In a few days , Several people carried out detailed surveying and mapping work on the buildings in the temple . Liang Sicheng has such a paragraph to record the hard surveying and mapping scene at that time :“ When taking pictures , Bats fly at the sight of light , I can't bear it , And there are thousands of bugs in the wood ( Probably eating bat blood ), Hard work . We'll work sooner or later , Or climb into the top , With bats and bedbugs , Or climb to the structure of the palace , The pitch is fine , I'm afraid it's not thoughtful to explore , Because at that time, we were afraid of the chance , It's not easy to revisit . If this catalogue is not exhaustive , I'm afraid it will fail the ingenuity of the ancients .”


Left :1937 Lin Huiyin mapped the fourth year of Qianfu in Tang Dynasty (877 year ) Buddhist stone pillar . Right : Today's Jingchuang

Everyone is eager to find the literal evidence to prove the building age of the main hall . They found it on the inscription of the Sutra building in front of the East Hall “ The 11th year of Dazhong University ”( A.D. 857 year ) The words... , However, no inscriptions have been found on the building to prove its construction date , There is no way to prove whether it has been overhauled or rebuilt . Until one day , Lin Huiyin found ink under the beam of the main hall , Wipe away the dust of a thousand years , She struggled to recognize a line of writing .

So the right army lieutenant Wang Buddha Hall sent a confession to female disciple Ning Gongyu 【2】

This line of characters and the characters on the Scriptures outside the hall confirm each other , Then the architectural age of the East Hall of Foguang temple can be located in the 11th year of Tang Dynasty , It was just right away 1080 year . The belief of Tang Dynasty architecture still exists in domestic architecture , This proves that . The Japanese claim that there is no Tang Dynasty architecture in China , You can also draw a full stop to this . This day , yes 1937 year 7 month 5 Japan .


The 11th year of Dazhong outside the East Hall (857 year ) Buddhist stone pillar

1937 year 7 month 7 Japan , The construction society received a telegram from Liang Sicheng , The telegram tells us about the discovery of Tang Dynasty wooden buildings in Foguang temple, Wutai County, Shanxi Province, China . On the same day , Lugouqiao Incident , The ethnic conflicts between China and Japan broke out in an all-round way . Liang and Lin, who were far away in Shanxi Province, heard about the Lugou incident five days later , The investigation was then suspended , Left Wutai Area . From now on , They never came back here .

This temple hidden in the mountains , In the mountains and rivers 、 At a critical juncture of national crisis , Became a symbol of culture . The night before the sinking of the land of China , As a result, the academic contest between China and Japan reversed . The discovery of the main hall , Originally, it can only stay in the academic level of ancient architecture , But because of the outbreak of ethnic conflicts between China and Japan , And into a larger historical background .


Although it was built in the late Tang Dynasty , But the huge brackets and flat roof still show the bearing of the Tang Dynasty

Speaking of the bearing of Tang Dynasty , There's a world of clothes , All over the world . But whether it's the Sheng song at the banquet , Or the rouge flowing in Qinhuai River , All of them disappeared together with the city of Chang'an . Once a splendid civilization full of flowers , But only a simple ancient temple is left to prove its existence . It's hard to say that time has peeled off the appearance of prosperity , Or the Foguang temple will be independent from the rest of the world , So it's safe from war .


Panoramic view of East Hall

How time flies , Today we see Foguang temple , It will still be shocked by its grandeur . It's not just the architecture itself , What's more, it is the trace left by the circulation of thousands of years . Foguang temple , In the Tang Dynasty, Emperor Wuzong destroyed Buddhism 【3】 And then rebuild , It has been circulated through dynasties , Survived countless wars and gunfire , until 84 I had to meet a bosom friend years ago , Return to the vision of academia , Fortunately, he escaped the Anti Japanese war , Until today, .

People in history 、 Everything in history is gone , But the traces of these people and things on it , But it won't go away .

The light of the Buddha for thousands of years , It's not just this building from the Tang Dynasty , It's all the people who are involved in it , Everything to do with it , It's a river of time , It's the whole history .

In the mountains of Shanxi , It is worshipped by incense , Also by the dust of the turbid world , Thousands of years independent of reincarnation , So be merciful to all things .


The earliest mapping data of Foguang Temple left by Liang Lin

1937 year , Wutai County, Shanxi Province .

They gently pushed open the wooden door of the main hall . The light of the setting sun is pouring in slowly through the crack of the door , On the kind faces of several Buddha statues . The light of Buddha suddenly appears .

All of a sudden, there is a percussion of Sanskrit music , Buddha bowed his head and said nothing .

【1】 Refers to the Dunhuang Grottoes 61 In cave No 《 Wutai Mountain map 》. Liang Sicheng should be from the picture book of bosihe 《 Dunhuang Grottoes catalogue 》 I saw this mural , It indicates the distribution of temples in Wutai Area in the late Tang Dynasty , among “ The Great Buddha Temple ” Liang Sicheng's attention was attracted by the label of , Then there was a trip to the Wutai Area .

【2】“ So the right army lieutenant Wang ” It is speculated that it is Yang Shoucheng, the eunuch of Tang Dynasty . Zining Gongyu, a girl from Kyoto, presided over the reconstruction of Foguang temple . There are still statues of Yining Gongyu in the hall .

【3】 Foguang temple was first built in the period of Emperor Xiaowen of the Northern Wei Dynasty ( A.D. 471~499 year ). In the fifth year of Huichang, Emperor Wuzong of Tang Dynasty ( A.D. 845 year ) There was a large-scale movement to destroy the Buddha , A large number of temples were ordered to be demolished , At that time, the Foguang temple was not spared except for a few tombs . After Tang Xuanzong ascended the throne, Buddhism revived again , During the reign of Xuanzong Dazhong , Foguang temple is built again .

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