This is a manual for photography beginners . I want to be able to use the most concise words , Explain how to operate the mobile phone 、 The camera , Take a picture “ reasonable ” Photos of the .
As for how to take a good picture , There won't be , But it won't take long , I'll sort out the techniques I've used over the years , For your reference .
When photography first appeared , Just as a branch of painting , Early photographic works tend to be integrated into the photographer's strong personal emotional color . later , It has been found that photography can be used not only to express emotions , It can also be used to record various social situations , So photography gradually became independent from painting , And eventually two schools evolved —— Painting and documentary .
Why would you say that? ？ Because most of us are documentary photographers （ It's more likely that no genre is involved ）, So we should send the documentary “ reasonable ” To demand of myself .
that ,“ reasonable ” What exactly does it mean ？ I think it's about restoring the scene as much as possible , What do you see , Just restore it to what it looks like . Maybe this is not the most beautiful , But it must be reasonable .
What it takes to restore a real scene ？ In my opinion, there are at least four factors ：
The right shot
The concept is over , Enter the practical part .
I'm often asked , What's the difference between mobile photography and camera photography ？
My answer is , If you just want to make friends , Well, for most scenes, the picture quality is not different ; If you want a big output , For example, print large photos 、 As a magazine illustration or as a screen saver , So you still need a camera . Besides the quality of the picture , Another big difference is in manipulation . Some scenes are hard to capture with a mobile phone , Like the starry sky 、 Dark light 、 lightning 、 Sports and so on , Yes, of course , The mobile phone is also slower than the camera , Think of the typing speed of apple and Nokia .
Although the image quality and handling of mobile phones are not as good as those of cameras , But because of its portability , And the excellent performance in the network pictures , It's still a very good choice for most people —— Even people like me who have several cameras often take photos with their mobile phones , Light ！
What should I pay attention to in mobile photography ？ I've listed the steps , You can write it down , Think about it before you take a picture , I believe it will help to improve the level of photography .
So-called HDR, It means highly dynamic lighting rendering photos . This term is too professional , Take an example to make it clear . Have you ever photographed people in backlight ？ To lighten the face , The background will be dead white, right ？ That's out of the dynamic range .HDR The dynamic range of （ The difference between the lightest and darkest parts ） It's bigger than a normal picture , If open HDR To take the same picture , Maybe with the face visible , The background can also retain some details , It's not a white flower .
It's not a simple way to explain HDR Principle . It can be said that HDR It's a combination of three or more photos with different exposures , The darkest one retains the light details , The brightest one keeps the dark details , So when you put it together , Is there enough detail in the light and dark ？
therefore , When it comes to light ratio is particularly large , When I want to shoot clearly again , Be decisive in opening HDR Well ！
It's a good shot , It has two meanings , First, the subject should be kept intact （ In particular, the portrait should not be broken hands and feet ！）, The other is to remove unnecessary objects . What are unnecessary objects ？ That is, it can't be connected with the subject , An object that cannot be contrasted with the subject .
for instance . We often have this feeling on the way to mountain climbing ,“ wow , The vision is so broad , I'm going to take a picture of it ！” Go home and have a look , I found everything in the picture , grass 、 tree 、 peak 、 Pedestrian flow 、 White clouds 、 The chimney …… So I said to my friend ,“ You'll find out once by yourself , It's much better than the picture , I can't get it on my cell phone .” Is it true ？ not always . If we want to show the towering mountains , So there's a close-up （ Like a person , Compare the height of the mountain ）、 There are mountains （ The main body ）、 There are white clouds （ It's best if the mountain can go straight into the sky ） That's enough . Everything else is unnecessary , All should be removed .
Another example . Why should I use a big aperture to shoot a girl ？ Because the large aperture can make the irrelevant background disappear , So that all the attention is focused on the subject , That's what happened to my sister .
There was a man , Sent out a group of all the false lighting for me to comment on （ Praise ）. I couldn't talk at first , How contemptuous we should be , Then he and I had a big fight . It turned out to be known by a boring master , He looked at the picture ,“0 branch .” So there was another fight . It's not to say that everything that's been shot is not good , Just under normal circumstances , If you open your eyes and see that the world is fuzzy , Will you be happy ？
Pull back , Focus on the subject . How to choose the focus ？ It's good to shoot where you want to .
In some high light ratio scenes , We don't need the light and dark parts to be clear , So there's no need to open HDR. Like shooting the sunset , Just a silhouette of the nearby building is needed , here HDR It's not appropriate . Now , We can make the picture darker by adjusting the exposure compensation , It doesn't matter if the building is black , Just let the subject sun show the brightness of dusk .
The adjustment method of exposure compensation is as follows ： First touch the screen to select the focus , A small sun will appear to the right of the focus , You can drag down the sun and darken it （ Exposure compensation is negative ）, Drag up to highlight the picture （ The exposure compensation is positive ）. This feature should be available in most mobile phones released in the past two years , The operation may be slightly different , You can try it yourself .
Compare what I said before “ reasonable ” Four elements , We've adjusted three , Why didn't you adjust the color ？ Generally speaking, the built-in automatic white balance of mobile phone is enough , Even if the automatic deviation , It would be nice to adjust later .
Here's the guide for the mobile phone part , Let's move on to the camera section .
Camera operation guide mainly refers to SLR or micro single , It can also be a high-end card machine with similar operation functions . If it's a fool's machine , The operation mode refers to the mobile phone .
Just like mobile photography , To make a picture of “ reasonable ” Photos of the , We still have to control the four elements . alike , I've also listed a list of operating procedures for cameras .
If you shoot the moon , Then use the telephoto ; If you take a big picture , So change to a wide angle ; If you take a portrait , So make a big aperture …… The key is to know what you're shooting , It's not an operation , Not today .
So called photometry , The camera measures how bright an object should be , Then the camera will automatically expose according to this standard . As for which object the camera will measure , That's what metering mode is all about .
There are three main metering modes , Central focus metering 、 Spot metering and evaluation photometry . The central focus metering will restore the center of the screen as the reference , in other words , If the center of the picture is dark , In order to restore the center of the picture to normal brightness , It's going to brighten the whole picture , vice versa . Point metering is the same thing , The light measuring object is the object on the focus , Let's assume that our metering point is on the snow , So in order to control the brightness of snow at a normal level （ gray ）, That would reduce exposure in general , Darken the picture . Evaluation photometry is to take an average of the brightness of all areas in the viewfinder .
The central focus on photometry, I think it's not of great value , It is said to be for beginners , Because beginners like to put the subject in the middle ; Spot metering is suitable for objects that need accurate metering , For example, face, etc ; Evaluation photometry takes care of the whole picture , The scenery is used too much .
relatively speaking , I prefer a little metering , But at present, it seems that evaluation photometry is more popular , It doesn't matter . For metering mode , Beginners don't have to worry too much about , Generally, it's OK to set a habit mode , You don't have to change it all the time . Even if it doesn't work out , Then adjust the exposure compensation .
Before you start this step, explain the amount of downward light . The amount of light entering , To put it bluntly, it's just how bright the picture is . If you want the photo to be brighter , So increase the amount of light ; If you want the picture to be darker , So reduce the amount of light . There are three factors that affect the amount of light ： aperture 、 Shutter 、 Sensitivity ISO. The larger the aperture 、 The slower the shutter is 、ISO The higher you go, the greater the amount of light . All three nouns are quite professional , I turned it into a little story to understand .
Imagine , We're in a secret room , The only light source in the chamber comes from a small hole in the wall . Now we have a magic paper in our hands , The more light energy this paper absorbs , The more wealth we'll have . So here comes the question , How can we have more wealth ？ There are three ways . First of all , Make the hole in the wall bigger （ Increase the aperture , Particular attention , The larger the aperture F The smaller the value. ）. The second kind , Increase the light absorption capacity of light absorbing paper （ Increase the sensitivity ISO）. The third kind of , Wait longer （ Slow down the shutter speed ）.
Is that easier to understand ？ good , After knowing what these three means , Let's see what each of them means .
Aperture affects depth of field and image quality . Let's talk about the depth of field first . The larger the aperture , The shallower the depth of field ; The smaller the aperture , The deeper the field . What is the depth of field ？ Depth of field refers to the clear range in the picture . for instance , Assuming other conditions （ Focus and focus position ） In the same case ,F2.8 The clear range of the aperture is 3-4 rice （ Leave yourself 3-4 M's object is clear ）, Well, it's a gear smaller than it F4 The range of clarity should be better than F2.8 Deep , May be 2.5 rice -5 rice . Is that clear ？ So people usually use a large aperture , Blur out the background ; Take the scenery with a small aperture , Make sure that everything is clear . The aperture also affects the quality of the picture . The best quality aperture of each lens is different , This is caused by the lens manufacturing process , Most of the shots F5.6-F11 The quality of aperture imaging is good , If there is no other requirement, the aperture in this range can be preferred .
The shutter means whether the photo will “ paste ”. If I use 1 Second shutter speed to shoot the running Su Bingtian , What will happen ？ There's going to be a pasted picture , It is likely that Su Bingtian's shadow will appear from the left border to the right frame of the photo , because 1 Seconds are enough for him to run 10 Rice. ！ Then if I use 1 Second shutter speed to shoot a static billboard what happens ？ Most of the billboards will be pasted off , Because even though the billboard didn't move , But my hands are shaking . What kind of shutter speed is safe ？ When shooting still life , At least make sure that the shutter speed is faster than the reciprocal of the focal length —— If you use 50mm Take pictures with standard lens , Then the shutter speed should be faster than 1/50 second . If you're shooting a moving object , One thing to discuss .
Sensitivity ISO Relatively simple ,ISO The bigger it is , The worse the picture quality , Just remember. .
I see the aperture 、 Shutter 、 The relationship between the sensitivity and its significance , If you're still bothered by how to choose the exposure parameters , I made a relatively simple judgment process for reference .
a. Is it a moving object ？ If yes , Select shutter priority or manual mode .
b. The object being photographed has special aperture requirements （ Background blur 、 The panorama is clear ） Do you ？ If yes , Select aperture priority or manual mode .
c. Take a picture , Is there dead black or white in the picture （ It is recommended to watch the histogram ）？ If yes , In aperture priority / Adjust exposure compensation with shutter priority , Adjust the shutter speed in manual mode /ISO
d. Now the exposure is more appropriate , Check if the shutter speed is lower than the safe speed ？ If yes , Improve ISO（ In manual mode, the shutter speed should be increased ）
e. If it's too dark , It's not safe to adjust the shutter , perhaps ISO Greater than 1600 了 （ The noise is very obvious ）, What do I do ？ Please get on the tripod .
f. complete ！
After the exposure is adjusted in place , And then adjust the focus .
Focus mode is relatively simple , It can be roughly divided into three kinds —— A single 、 Continuous tracking 、 Manual .
Single focus The camera is fixed after one auto focus , For still life photography .
Continuous tracking It refers to the automatic focusing of objects in the focusing frame , For motion pictures .
Manual focus It is usually used in combination with live view , It is the most accurate method of focusing （ The problem of inaccuracy of auto focus in the machine is avoided , But it's also the slowest ）, For dark light 、 Scenery, etc . Because of the fixed focus , It's also used in orbit 、 Stack composition, etc .
Because it's not so much about animals and sports , I usually choose single focus , The tripod is manually focused .
There's nothing to say about this , Look inside the viewfinder , Focus where you want to focus .
Did you find out , Or not? “ Real colors ”？ It's automatic , The automatic white balance of the camera is better than that of the mobile phone , It's a big deal later .
Write in a profusion 4000 More than words , It's a little wordy , But I think the feasibility is relatively high . For the hole dug in this article （ Like histogram 、 Exposure compensation, etc ） Deeply sorry , I'll try to make up for it later .
Good night, .