How do photographers expose correctly?

2020-11-19 22:49:50  作者:How much do you know about photography

The right exposure should be the best exposure

In the digital age , The way to get the right exposure often depends on the camera's metering system , They are now very complete , Capable of almost all complex shooting scenes . Technically speaking , The original metering system will restore the brightness of the picture to 18% ash , But because of the variety of scenes ,[ Photography ][Link 1] The feelings that teachers want to express are also very different , therefore , Technically correct exposure is often not the best exposure for a photograph .

As a photographer , Exposure should be sought as the best representation of a photograph , It's not technically correct exposure . In the digital age , The way to get the best exposure is in addition to the photographer's conception of the photo , You also need to be able to use other auxiliary functions on the camera , For example, the rear of the fuselage can preview the shooting effect LCD display 、 What the camera shows about the photo is correct [ Exposure ][Link 2] Histogram of information , And a wide variety of metering modes 、 Exposure compensation even surrounds exposure .


In stage photography , The singer and the bright lights blend together


The Buddha statue in the Museum , The bright part of the photo is just above the Buddha's head , This light effect makes the Buddha head more mysterious and solemn


A scene on the stage of a play , The light on the spot is stronger than , The photographer controls the exposure precisely , Recorded the complete form of characters and props

The right order of exposure

The photographer is in the process of making a picture , Photometry and correct exposure work the same as composition , It plays an important role . In order to make the novice better understand the process , The following will explain the digital SLR camera shooting exposure operation sequence .

First of all , Select metering mode : The metering mode is generally divided into point metering 、 Local photometry 、** Focus on photometry and evaluation photometry , The photographer should choose the appropriate metering mode according to the characteristics of the subject ;

second , Choose the sensitivity : According to the intensity of the ambient light , The combination of focal length and safety shutter , To set the appropriate sensitivity ;

Third , Set the white balance : Confirm the white balance according to the light conditions , Automatic white balance mode is usually available ;

Fourth , Determine the exposure mode : Priority from aperture 、 Shutter priority 、 Program automatic exposure and manual exposure and other exposure modes to choose , One of the most commonly used is the aperture priority mode ; The fifth , Take pictures : According to the shooting intention, complete the framing ;

The sixth , Consider whether to use exposure compensation : If the photographer needs to fine tune the exposure , In this step, you can use the exposure compensation function ; The seventh , Press the shutter to finish shooting .


Take pictures of the stone railing of the Forbidden City , The warm regional light brings light and shade contrast to the picture


Evaluation photometry can face a variety of complex shooting scenes , Its algorithm takes into account elements in most areas of the screen


Shoot the moment the bartender takes a bottle of wine from the wine rack , Evaluation photometry can still be used to obtain correct exposure in complex light conditions


** Focus on light metering mode, focus on the elements of the central area of the picture , Try to make ** The shooting elements of the area can be exposed correctly


A statue of Buddha illuminated by light , use ** Focus on average photometry shooting can achieve ideal results

Contrast and tolerance in photos

In one [ Photo ][Link 3] in , Even if the subject is in average light , The brightness difference between the brightest part and the darkest part may also be large . Typical examples are people in black suits and white shirts , All in natural light , Measure light with an incident light meter , The contrast between them can reach 6 There are so many files . Light ratio is one of the important parameters in photography , Refers to the light receiving ratio of the dark side to the bright side of the object in the illumination environment .

When shooting elements with a large light ratio at the same time , Their light and dark details often can't be recorded perfectly at the same time , Because camera tolerance is limited . Today's digital age , With the development of technology , The tolerance of the sensor has been increased , But it's still not as bright and dark as the naked eye can see . Camera tolerance is generally 5~7 files .

When shooting a scene with a high light ratio , Photographers often have to make a choice , In fact, it is through exposure to select a light ratio range for shooting and recording , Sometimes the bright and dark details are missing , But as long as the theme of the photo is successfully expressed , The exposure of photos is successful .


This picture shows children playing by the lake at sunset , The details of light and dark parts in the picture are missing , The characters are presented in silhouette . Although the picture contrast is big 、 Few details , But the effect of the picture is still very good . so , The tolerance of camera priority is only an objective existence , It's not a stumbling block to the photographer's creation .


The image of Jesus in the Church , Although the white wall column has the suspicion of overexposure , but [ Photo ][Link 3] The artistic conception is just right


Backlighting takes pictures of pedestrians on the road and their long shadows , Accurate exposure of photos , The brightness of the ground gradually changes from near to far

Flexible use of exposure compensation

Although the metering system of the digital SLR camera can be trusted by the photographer in most cases , But in complex light conditions , The photographer can also use the special tool of exposure compensation to adjust the exposure data measured by the camera .

In the face of complex lighting scenes , Some photographers choose to use spot metering , Some photographers use exposure compensation based on their experience in evaluating photometry .

The principle of exposure compensation is very simple , If the camera is in aperture priority mode , The exposure compensation function is to adjust the shutter speed on the basis of measuring the exposure value to realize the increase or decrease of exposure . And the effect of this exposure adjustment , You can also watch by shooting LCD The LCD displays , therefore , As long as you try , More complicated exposure scene , You can also compensate for this with exposure “ A fool ” The function is easy to crack .


The tendency to use exposure compensation in different scenes


Taking pictures of houses in the forest under night , Get an emission beam , Use the exposure compensation function to add 1/3 File exposure


In winter , The setting sun , The trees by the lake are silhouetted against the setting sun , Use the exposure compensation function to reduce 1/3 File exposure


Focus on the lights of luxury cars , Turn on the lights when shooting , Using the exposure compensation function , reduce 2/3 File exposure

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