Photography later basic course

2020-11-19 22:16:32  作者:Photography

After the basic course of SLR photography , I haven't started to explain the post tutorial . I'm hesitant to explain later .

Post processing is different from basic photography , There are relatively few similarities between different photos , The way this photo is processed is not necessarily suitable for that one . It's difficult to explain and narrate , Or video is more efficient . But I don't think it's appropriate to only explain the basic principles of photography but not the way of post-processing , Besides, I firmly support the idea that photos need post-processing .

therefore , I decided to write a tutorial on photography post-processing . I will explain the general methods and principles of handling photos . The case files used in this article can be downloaded here [][] password 2d3k

In the previous third tutorial , I told you what RAW The format and RAW The role and benefits of , I won't go over it here .

however , What we need to know is RAW Format is just a general term for a class of documents , For digital negative format . And different brands of cameras RAW The format is different , So file suffixes are different , For example, Canon is CR2, Nikon is NEF, Sony is ARW. See your camera manual for the file format . therefore , Don't confuse concepts with specific file formats , So that you can't find it in the record folder .raw File format .

When you shoot, you should choose to record RAW File format , You can choose to compress RAW File or not compressed . If you want to compress RAW Save memory card space , I recommend lossless compression . Just like its name , This compression method can save space without losing information . in addition , There are also some models where you can choose to record 14 Bits or 12 Bit format , I suggest a higher 14 Bit RAW Format file .

One thing to note is that , Even cameras of the same brand , But different models of machines are generated RAW Format files are different .RAW Format processing software can only analyze the existing cameras on the market , And the newly released camera generated RAW File format is not supported , As a result, software vendors are constantly updating their versions , To ensure support for most cameras on the market .

So I suggest that post-processing software also try to use the latest version . Even if the software you're using already supports your camera , But newer versions of the software will be more helpful in terms of performance and functionality .

Every camera manufacturer provides RAW Format processing tools . You can use the camera manufacturer's software , And it's usually free . You can also choose other third-party software , such as Adobe Of Lightroom and Photoshop, perhaps PhaseOne Of CaptureOne,On1 Of Photo RAW Such as software .

When you choose post-processing software , I suggest you try to choose Adobe Of Lightroom And Photoshop The combination of . The reason is that the market share of these two softwares is very high , There are many users , This means that there are a large number of tutorials based on these two software . Although the idea of post-processing is the same , It's not impossible to use other software , But it's not very convenient after all . therefore , The next tutorial I'm going to use Lightroom To explain , When you need to combine with the local processing of the layer, you can enter Photoshop For advanced processing .

I'll use it in post-processing Lightroom and Photoshop

It is suggested that you put all the photos in the same folder , In this folder , You can create different folders based on date or topic . stay Lightroom in , Add the root directory directly , You can sync all the pictures in . When you have new photos added to the folder later , You just need to Lightroom Synchronize this new folder , You can import the new image into .

When you first start Lightroom, It will prompt you to create a new catalog file , After creation, enter the main interface of the software . At the top right is a row of switching tabs , There are only two that we often use ,Library( library ) and Develop( Modify the photo ).

stay Library Library mode window , The left column contains a preview , Catalog , Folders and collections . Click the plus button on the right side of the folder , Select Add Folder , Add the directory you use to save your pictures , All your pictures will be imported into Lightroom It's in .

stay Lightroom Add folder in

Select an image that you need to post process , Click... On the top right Develop( Modify the photo ) label , You can start to deal with .

Enter the interface status after modifying the photo mode

After entering the mode of modifying photos , The right panel is used to adjust the photo .Basic( basic ) Part of it is used to set the basic tone of the photo . ad locum , First set the right tone for an image , Including exposure and color , And then it's easy to make the following minor adjustments .

“ basic ” modular

The top two sliders are color temperature and hue . You can choose from the drop-down list Lightroom Built in several typical color temperatures , Or you can use the dropper tool , In the picture you think it should be pure white, click ,Lightroom The color temperature of the whole picture will be adjusted according to the color of that position . Of course , You can also drag the slider , To make subtle adjustments , You can even click on the number on the right , Input specific color temperature or hue value directly .

Usually , I almost always use the camera's automatic white balance setting when shooting . Now the automatic white balance of digital cameras is very accurate . And then in post-processing , According to the needs of artistic expression, then manually drag the slider for fine adjustment . It doesn't have to be pure white , Adjust according to our needs for the screen .

In this picture , When shooting, the camera uses the automatic white balance setting , It's accurate enough , The real color of the scene is restored . however , This picture was taken about before sunset 15 minute , At this time, the sun's rays should bring more warm purple color to the clouds in the sky and buildings on the ground . therefore , I fine tune the color temperature , about 5200K More appropriate . meanwhile , Improve the tone , Make the purple in the picture more , Set to 24.

Adjusted color temperature and tone

Below the color temperature is the part of the tone adjustment , This part has 6 Slider to adjust the exposure parameters .Exposure( Exposure ) Used to control the overall exposure of the picture . The effect of exposure on the exposure compensation function of the camera is similar to , They are all exposure adjustments for the integrity of the picture . The building below is a little bit dark , Add a little bit of exposure compensation , about +0.1 that will do . The highlight of the sky will also increase the exposure , Don't worry about the grey sky , Here's the details of the sky .

Contrast( Contrast ) Well understood. , Used to adjust the contrast between highlight and shadow . High contrast can make the picture more transparent , More three-dimensional . But high contrast makes the highlights brighter , The shadows get darker , The response on the histogram is to push highlights and shadows to both sides . On the contrary, low contrast will pull the highlights and shadows to the middle of the histogram . In this picture , Add a little bit of contrast , Set the contrast to +15 that will do .

Adjusted exposure and contrast

Highlights( highlights ) Used to adjust the brighter part of the screen . This part of the content is located on the right side of the histogram , But at the same time, it doesn't contain a small area close to the far right . Increasing the value of the highlight will increase the brightness of that part , At the same time, this part of the content in the histogram space compression is narrower , What reflects is that the contrast is lower . Reducing the value of the highlight will reduce the brightness of this part , At the same time, this part of the content in the histogram space stretch wider , What reflects is a higher contrast . On this picture , Adjust the highlight to -57.

Shadow( shadow ) Used to adjust the darker part of the screen . The control area and effect of shadows are similar to those of highlights . The difference is that this part of the content is on the left side of the histogram , At the same time, it doesn't contain a small area close to the far left . Increasing the value of the shadow increases the brightness of that part , Colleagues will also make this part of the content in the histogram space stretch wider , What reflects is a higher contrast . And lowering the value of the shadow will reduce the brightness of this part , At the same time, this part of the content in the histogram space compression is narrower , What reflects is that the contrast is lower . On this picture , Adjust the shadow to -12.

Whites( White scale ) The area used to control the brightest part of the picture . The histogram reflects a small area on the far right . When increasing the white scale , This part of the area will be highlighted . It is reflected in the histogram that this part of the region continues to move to the right , Even beyond the histogram , The highlight moves to the right next to the white color scale . On the contrary, the same is true . Because this picture was taken at sunset , At this time, the brightness of the sky is not bright , So lower the white scale and get back some details of the sky , So set to -16.

Blacks( Black color scale ) Used to adjust the darkest part of the picture . The control area of the black color scale is similar to that of the highlight part . The difference is that this part of the content is located in the left most small area of the histogram . When lowering the black scale , It will darken this part of the area . It is reflected in the histogram that this part of the region continues to move to the left , Even beyond the histogram , The shadow moves to the left next to the black color scale . On the contrary, the same is true . In this picture , In order to avoid the phenomenon of dead black in the picture , A little bit more black , Set to +7.

Adjusted highlights , shadow , White scale , Black color scale

Clarity( clarity ) Used to control the clarity of the picture . Sharpness through the algorithm to adjust the contrast and sharpness of the picture , But it's a little different from the contrast and sharpening functions alone . Improve clarity , Make the picture look more transparent . In this picture , Set the sharpness to +21.

Vibrance( Natural saturation ) Used to adjust the saturation of the picture , But what's different from saturation is , Natural saturation only adjusts the low saturation part of the picture , Therefore, the adjustment will not affect the saturation of the whole picture . therefore , The natural saturation control is more intelligent and practical . Here you set the natural saturation to +13.

Saturation( saturation ) Then with Photoshop The concept of saturation in is consistent , Used to adjust the saturation of the whole picture . Add a little bit of saturation here , Set to +3.

Adjusted clarity , Natural saturation , saturation

Next is ToneCurve( tone curve ) part .Lightroom The function of tone curve in and Photoshop The role of in is consistent . If you are familiar with Photoshop The curve in , So the hue curve here is easy to understand . The curve is superimposed on the histogram , Take the bottom left corner as the origin , To the right is from the picture 0 Color scale to 255 Color scale , Up is the output color scale value , That's the color scale you want him to show in the end . therefore , Default unprocessed picture , There will be a straight line on the curve from the lower left corner to the upper right corner . At this time , Each primary color level of the image below corresponds to the output color scale one by one , Not strengthened or weakened . For example, on the original picture 128 The intensity of the information output of the color scale is also 128 Color scale .

The function of the curve is to break this one-to-one balance , Manually adjust the output intensity at different positions .Lightroom There are two patterns of curves in , One is like having highlights in the basic module , white , black , shadow 4 A slider controlled by three parameters . The other is like Photoshop Free curve control like that in . I suggest using free curve control mode , It's free to add control points , Make more subtle adjustments . On this picture , In the highlight section of the histogram, click add control point to slightly increase the brightness , And then lower it a little bit on the left side , Add contrast . This will affect the shadow below . So add a control point to the shadow part , Maintain the original output value . To avoid dark parts of the black color scale , A little bit more . Finally, as I adjusted .

Adjusted hue curve

The basic setting of the photos has been completed . It can be seen that because of the natural saturation and the increase of saturation , The buildings at the bottom of the picture will be more blue , This is because of the reflection of blue light scattered at sunset . To make the building look less blue , We need to adjust this part later . Can pass Lightroom Before and after contrast function in , Compare the effect before and after treatment . so , In the picture , Especially with the details of the sky part more abundant , The picture is more transparent . But the overall color is not good enough , It still needs to be retouched .

After the completion of the basic setting before and after the treatment of comparison

Below the hue curve is HSL/ Color / B&W(HSL / Color / Black and white ) Adjust the panel .HSL yes Hue,Saturation,Luminance( Hue , saturation , Lightness ) The initials of .HSL The color pattern is Photoshop The most basic pattern in , At the same time, it is also a very important way of color matching for photography .

HSL And the role of color is the same , It's just HSL It's in color , saturation , The lightness is distinguished , Adjust the colors separately . And the color pattern is based on different colors , Adjust the hue of different colors separately , Saturation and lightness . Although the order of adjustment is different , But the principle is the same . Generally speaking ,HSL It will be more commonly used .

Black and white are Lightroom The way to convert a picture to a black and white picture in . About the conversion of black and white photos , I'll talk about it alone .

Click on HSL, Get into HSL Color mode . I'm used to starting with saturation . Under the saturation label , Increase the saturation of red in the sky to +17. In order to make the cloud glow more obvious , Increase the saturation of purple to +46. To reduce the blue on the building , Adjust the saturation of the blue sky to -14. Switch to the value tab , Lower the purple in the sky to make it more visible , Adjust purple to -21. Again , Reduce the brightness of blue to -10 To enhance the effect of blue sky . Last , Switch to hue tab , Drag the purple hue to the right to make it more magenta , Set to +8. You can see the effect of this step by switching the switch at the top left of the panel .

Adjusted hue , saturation , Lightness

Next SplitToning( Color separation ) Panels are used to add different colors to highlights and shadows respectively , To make the overall tone of the picture more uniform , More stylized features . You can try to drag these sliders to observe the effect on the screen . In this picture , In order to make the part of the sky more visible , So set the hue of the highlight to 279, It's purplish red , Saturation is set to 8. Set the hue of the shadow to 210 Blue , The saturation is 7. At the same time, set the balance in the middle to +15, In order to make the highlight part more obvious .

Adjusted hue separation

Next Detail( details ) The module is used to control sharpening and noise reduction . The content in this part must enlarge the picture to 100% Display scale of , Only in this way can we observe the effect accurately . stay 100% At the display scale of , Set the amount of sharpening to 44, The radius is set to 1.2, Mask set to 17 In order to prevent the shadow part from sharpening and causing noise to rise . In the noise reduction part , Set the value to 9, The details are set to 57. The remaining parameters remain by default . In this way, the adjustment of details is basically completed .

Sharpen the details and adjust the noise reduction

In the lens correction module , Check RemoveChromatic Abberation( Remove the color difference ) It can eliminate the color difference of purple or green caused by the imaging of the lens . The color difference in this photo is slight , You can also check . At the bottom of the Enable Profile Correction( Enable profile correction ) You can use the calibration profile released by the lens manufacturer for the characteristics of the lens to correct the picture . Distortion and dark angle are usually corrected . In this picture, I think the effect is just right , There is no need to correct .

Check the lens correction section to remove the color difference

Transform( Transformation ) Used to adjust the geometry of the screen , Usually used to adjust perspective or level . This picture was taken at a level , But the building still has a tendency to fall toward the center because of the distortion of perspective . take Vertical( vertical ) Adjusted for -6, At this point, the effect is just . Check... Below Constrain Crop( Constrained clipping ) You can fill the image with the original size area .

Adjust the perspective in the transformation module

Effects( effect ) The function of the module is mainly used to add dark angle to photos , Add film texture particles , And very suitable for domestic users to remove haze function . In this landscape photo , Dark corners and particles don't need to be added , Although the haze removal function will remove haze according to intelligent algorithm , But it can also cause side effects of color distortion , So use it with caution . here , The haze removal function is set to +6 that will do .

In the effects module , Use the haze removal function to make the picture more transparent

The last camera calibration, we can leave it alone for the time being . Now you can look at the comparison before and after .

Make a comparison here

Lightroom Unlike Photoshop That has the layer function , And there are plenty of tools to use . however Lightroom There are still some tools that can be used to adjust parts of the screen . Namely Gradient Filter( graduated filter ),Radial Filter( Radial Gradient ) and Adjustment Brush( Adjust the brush ). Gradient filters are similar to Photoshop Linear gradient mode of the gradient tool in , And radial gradients are similar to Photoshop Radial gradient mode of the gradient tool in . Adjust the brush most freely , Apply directly to the part of the screen that needs to be adjusted , Then adjust the specific parameters .

The three tools on the right are used for local adjustment

On this picture , We need to reduce the brightness of the sky , Restore more details . Use the gradient tool , Drag the gradient from top to bottom ( Hold down Shift At the same time, you can keep the gradient vertical or horizontal ), Place a line in the middle of the gradient on the horizon . And then Exposure( Exposure ) Adjusted for -0.4, Adjust the contrast to 19, The highlight is adjusted to 7, The sharpness is set to 7, Saturation is set to 5. such , The clouds in the sky are more detailed , It's also more colorful .

Add a gradient filter

In order to correct the blue building caused by the previous adjustment , Drag a short vertical gradient filter from bottom to top on the building below , Put the middle line just below the gradient filter . Adjust the color temperature to 10, The exposure increased to 0.2. In this way, the light on the building will be more natural , It doesn't look too dark .

Add a new gradient filter below , It's a little bit lower than that

Because the sun is outside the picture on the left , So the sky on the left will be brighter than the one on the right . So drag a gradient filter from the top right to the bottom left , Set the exposure to -0.4. So the sky on the right is dark , And make the clouds on the left more prominent .

Add a slanted gradient filter to the top right

Next, add some layers of light and shade contrast to the building below . Because the light source is on the left , So the sunlight on the sunny side of the building should be more obvious . Use the adjust brush tool , Set the brush size to 12 about ,Feather( emergence ) and Flow( Traffic ) Set to 100, And then daub it here on the building below . Place the mouse over the dot of the adjustment tool , Or press O key , You can see the area smeared on the screen , Display in red translucent overlay . It's possible that the area you smear will be very bright , This is because Lightroom Adjust the relationship between the initial default values of the screen , Adjust the hue to 6, Adjust the exposure to 0.2, Adjust the saturation to 11. In this way, the sunny side of the building will be brighter and more obvious due to the sunlight . Now? , This photo is finished .

Apply the adjustment brush to the builder

add ,Lightroom The adjustment of pictures in is a non-destructive adjustment , That is to say, adjustments are not written directly into the source file and are overwritten . therefore ,Lightroom The adjustment steps in are arbitrary , You can adjust it from any step . But it's usually intuitive to follow the steps I've described . In the process of adjustment , It is common to adjust parameters back and forth , So don't worry about bad adjustment , It's OK to change it later .

After the completion of the comparison

Lightroom You don't need to save . When you first start Lightroom The directory file is used to store the adjustment information of all photos . As more and more photos , Catalog files will get bigger and bigger , So you need to pay attention to backup . Usually Lightroom It will prompt for a backup every other week , If you take a lot of photos, it's growing fast , Then you can back it up once a day , It's good to be careful after all .

Click on Library( library ) Return to the image management interface , Click the Export button on the left side to put the picture to JPG Or other formats to export to hard disk , For future use . Will the top of Exportto( Export to ) Set to Hard Drive( Hard disk ), Then you can select the folder below , Or finally click the Export button and select . Then you can name the file , You can choose the original file name , You can also rename yourself . Next, choose the file format , If you don't print , If it's only for online sharing , choice JPG Format , With sRGB Just store the color mode ,JPG Format quality can be adjusted at will . Finally, click the Export button to .

Select the file and click the Export button to export the file