With PhotoshopCS6 For example , Including the following six aspects of detailed notes
One 、PhotoshopCS6 Installation
Two 、 Color mode and its pixel concept
3、 ... and 、PhotoshopCS6 Basic understanding of the interface
Four 、 Basic knowledge of layers
5、 ... and 、 Basic knowledge of constituencies
6、 ... and 、 Basic knowledge of filters
Another article has explained in detail .
In Zhengzhen understand Photoshop CS Before , It is very necessary to understand the concept and meaning of some common nouns , The most basic colors, for example .
（ One ） Color pattern
Color pattern （ Color mode ）： It's an algorithm for representing colors in the digital world , It's a color model for displaying and printing images .
The common color patterns are RGB、CMYK、LAB、 Grayscale 、HSB、 Bitmap 、 Two tone 、 Index color and multichannel etc. , Each color pattern has its own special purpose , The most common is RGB Patterns and CMYK Pattern , So we focus on these two models .
1、RGB Color pattern ：
1）、 First ,RGB What is it? ？ It's very simple ,RGB Namely It's the acronym for red, green and blue R(red)、G(green)、B(blue), It stands for sanyuanguang red （Red）、 green （Green）、 blue （Blue）.
2）、 Roughly speaking RGB The value of the brightness represents the intensity value of the brightness , Sanyuan light red （R）、 green （G）、 blue （B） Each has “0---255” The level represents the intensity of brightness , The smaller the numerical , The lower the brightness , The greater the numerical , The higher the brightness .
for example ： Off-white R、G、B All for 255;
black R、G、B All for 0;
Pure red R The value is 255,G The value is 0,B The value is 0;
Pure green R The value is 0,G The value is 255,B The value is 0;
Pure blue R The value is 0,G The value is 0,B The value is 255;
When R、G、B When the values of the three components are equal , Produce gray . That is to say, grey R、G、B The three values are equal （ except 0 and 255）;
3）、 stay RGB In mode , Each of these RGB Ingredients can be used from 0（ black ） To 255（ white ） Value , Separately add R ingredients , The picture is red ; increase G ingredients , The picture is green ; increase B ingredients , The picture is blue .
for example ： Use bright red R value 246、G value 20、B value 50.
4）、 Pictured , For the three primary colors, red, green and blue , Red and green make yellow , Blue and green make green , Magenta with red and blue , Red and blue and green make white ; Red is complementary to cyan , The complementary green color is purple , The complementary color of blue is yellow .
5）、RGB It means red 、 green 、 The color of the three channels of blue , This standard covers almost all the colors that human vision can perceive , It is one of the most widely used color systems .
2、CMYK Color pattern （ Printing color separation mode ）：
1)、 First ,CMYK What is it? ？ It is a register mode used in color printing , Using the principle of mixing three primary colors of pigments , With black ink , There are four colors in total .
2)、CMYK The meaning of ：
C：Cyan= Cyan , Also known as “ sky blue ”
M：Magenta= magenta , Also known as “ Magenta ”
K： black— black
3）、 Each of these CMYK Four color ink can be used from “0--100%” Value , The brightest color assigned to the printing ink color percentage is low , The percentages assigned to darker colors are higher .
4）、CMYK yes 3 The name of the printing ink with the first letter ： Cyan Cyan、 magenta Magenta、 yellow Yellow. and K What is taken is black The last letter , I don't take the initials , It's to avoid blue (Blue) confusion .
notes ：CMYK and RGB Different
1）、RGB Mode is a luminous color pattern ,CMYK It's a reflective color pattern .
such as ：RGB Color patterns can be understood in this way , You can still see what's on the movie screen in the dark , because RGB It's a luminous color pattern .
CMYK Color patterns can be understood in this way , How do we read books ？ It's natural light shining on books , The words in the books are reflected in our eyes , I just saw the content . It needs an external light source , Of course, you can't read books in a dark room , because CMYK It's a reflective color pattern .
2）、CMYK The grayscale image of the channel and RGB similar , It's a kind of expression of content .RGB The grayscale represents the brightness of the color ,CMYK Grayscale indicates ink concentration .
3）、RGB White in the channel grayscale indicates brightness ( How luminous ) Higher , Black means brightness ( How luminous ) The lower , Pure white means the highest brightness , Pure black means zero brightness .CMYK A white color in the channel grayscale indicates a low ink content , Black means higher ink content , Pure white means no ink at all , Pure black means the highest ink concentration .
RGB Take black as the background color and add , namely RGB Are all 0 It's black , Are all 255 It's white
CMYK Take white as the background color , namely CMYK Are all 0 It's white , Are all 100% It's black
4）、 The image is displayed on the computer , use RGB Pattern ; Images are used in print , use CMYK Pattern .
3、Lab Color pattern
1）、Lab The values in describe all the colors that a person with normal vision can see .
2）、Lab The color model is made up of brightness (L) And about color a, b Three elements make up .
L Indicates brightness (Luminosity),a Indicates the range from magenta to green ,b It means the range from yellow to blue .
3）、L The value range of is determined by 0 To 100,L=50 when , Equivalent to 50% Black ;a and b The range of values is determined by +127 to -128, among +127a It's red , Gradually, the transition to -128 a When it's time to turn green ; Same principle ,+127b It's yellow ,-128b It's blue .
4、 Grayscale color mode
1）、RGB In color , stay RGB When the values are equal, the gray color mode is displayed
2）、 So called grayscale color , It means pure white 、 Pure black and a series of transition colors from black to white in both . We usually talk about black and white photos 、 black-and-white television , In fact, they should be called grayscale photos 、 Gray TV is exactly .
3）、 The grayscale color does not contain any hues （ The hue will be introduced later ）, That is to say, there is no red 、 green 、 Blue 、 A color like yellow .
4）、 Grayscale belongs to RGB Color gamut .
5、HSB Color pattern
1）、 When we usually express color , In general, it is HSB Pattern . Actually HSB Patterns are also easy to understand ,H(hues) For hue ,S(saturation) Indicates saturation ,B(brightness） Indicates brightness .
2）、 Hue ： Color can show the texture of the face , Generally speaking, it refers to pictures Color , Like red 、 Green or orange （ But black and white are colourless ）.
3）、 saturation ： Representing the color of an image Color （ The purity of color ）, High saturation, more colorful , Low saturation makes the color close to gray , white 、 Black and other gray colors have no saturation .
4）、 brightness ： Also known as lightness , Of or relating to the primary colors of figures of various colors Light and shade . High brightness, bright colors , The brightness is low and the color is dim , The highest brightness is pure white , The lowest is pure black .
5）、 Usage method ： When selecting colors , First determine the hue , Then determine saturation and brightness .
（ Two ） Pixels
1、 Pixels ： It's the basic unit that makes up the image , It's a small square color block .
“ Pixels ”（Pixel） By Picture( Images ) and Element（ Elements ） The letters of these two words make up , Is a unit used to calculate digital images , If we enlarge the image several times , It will be found that these continuous tones are actually composed of many small dots with similar colors , These little squares are the smallest units that make up the image “ Pixels ”（Pixel）.
When the image size is in pixels , Every centimeter is equal to 28 Pixels .
such as ,10cm*20cm The length of the picture , be equal to 280*560 The length of the pixel .
such as , The photo quality of a mobile phone is “200 Mega pixels ”, In fact, it means that the length and width of the photos taken by it are ：1600*1200 Pixels , But the actual calculation 1600*1200=192 Ten thousand pixels , About equal to 200 Megapixels .
2、 Image resolution ： That is, the number of pixels per unit area , The higher the resolution , More pixels , The more information the image has , Unit is ppi（Pixels Per Inch）.
for example ,300ppi Indicates that the image contains... Per square inch 300×300 Pixel .
3、 Device resolution （ Output resolution ）： It refers to the number of pixels per inch represented by various output devices , Unit is dpi（Dots Per Inch）. Different from image resolution , Image resolution can be changed , For example, you can set the resolution when clipping , The device resolution cannot be changed .
4、 Bitmap ： It's also called a lattice diagram , It's a graph with the smallest unit of pixels , Scaling distorts .
For example , The bitmap image is like a giant Buddha statue carved out , You can see from a distance that it's a Buddha statue , But when you get closer, you see stones , Scaling distorts .
Bitmap format has ：bmp、jpg、gif、psd、tif、png etc.
5、 Pixel image ： It is a picture point composed of many unit points , So understand , Now there are a lot of puzzles , Every small graph that makes up a large graph is equivalent to every cell point .
Be careful ： The difference between a pixel image and a bitmap .
Both belong to the lattice diagram , But a pixel map is made up of ordered pixels , The picture is small , The bitmap is composed of a large number of unordered pixels , Big picture .
6、 Vectorgraph ： It's scaling the image without distortion . Whether the display is large or small , The algorithm corresponding to the object on the screen is invariant , therefore , Even if you zoom in and out of the picture a lot , The display effect is still the same without distortion .
for instance , A vector graph is like I tell you the coordinates of a graph , And then let you draw this figure in different units of length , You'll find that no matter how you draw , How big or small the painting is , The images are very clear , That is to say, no matter how close you look at a vector graph , And you don't see the graphics distorted .
Vector format ：*.AI、*.EPS、*.dwg、*.cdr、*.wmf、*.emf wait
Vector and bitmap
notes ：Photoshop The main processing is bitmap image
Actually PS The interface is easy to understand , and Word The interface is similar , You can understand it in the same way .
Here's the picture ,PhotoshopCS6 The interface of the ： Name column 、 menu bar 、 Options bar 、 hold-all 、 Image window 、 Floating palette 、 The status bar consists of .
（ One ）、 Name column
CS6 Name column
open PS The interface of , The name bar is located at the top left of the interface , The function of the name column is to identify .
such as , We see Word You can see from the name column that we opened Word File and the name of this file ,PS The same is true for the name column of the .
（ Two ）、 menu bar
CS6 menu bar
As shown in the figure above Photoshop The menu bar of , There are ten menus .
1、“ file ” menu
As shown in the figure, it contains “ newly build ”、“ open ”、“ Store ”、“ Stored as ”、“ Page setup ” and “ sign out ” Wait for a particularly important order .
2、“ edit ” menu
Pictured , It contains “ Restore ”、“ shear ”、“ Copy ”、“ Paste ”、“ Free to change ”、“ fill ”、“ Stroke ”、“ Define patterns ”、“ Define brush presets ” Wait for important orders .
3、“ image ” menu
Pictured , It contains “ adjustment ”、“ Pattern ” Wait for a very important order , In the image menu, we can , Adjust the color balance 、 brightness 、 Contrast 、 Mid tone and shadow areas and so on .
4、“ Layers ” menu
Pictured , It also contains many important commands .
About “ Layers ” It's learning ps A very important piece of , The fourth part of the following detailed introductory notes , We will introduce in detail .
5、“ written words ” menu
6、“ choice ” menu
Pictured , It contains “ deselect ”、“ To choose ”、“ Expand the constituency ”、“ Reverse election ”、“ modify ”、“ Change the constituency ”、“ Save the constituency ”、“ Load selection ” Wait for the order .
Constituencies are also very important , Matting often uses constituencies , There are also a lot of tools in the toolbox about constituencies , such as ： Rectangular marquee tool 、 Lasso tools 、 Magic wand tools 、 Pen tools 、 Path selection tools and so on . The fifth part of the following detailed introductory notes , We will introduce in detail .
7、“ Filter ” menu
As shown in the picture, it contains a lot of effects , such as “ Fuzzy ”、“ Distortion ”、“ Stylized ”、“ liquefaction ”、“ Increase the lighting effect ” and “ Add more noise ” wait , This is also a menu that will be used frequently in the future , There are so many interesting effects in it .
8、“ View ” menu
As shown in the figure, it contains “ Zoom in ”、“ narrow ”、“ Screen mode ”、“ scale ”、“ Full canvas display ”、“ preview ”、“ Gamut warning ” Wait for the order .
9、“ window ” menu
The main function of this menu is ps The layout of the interface , Which plates do you want the interface to show , Just put a tick in front of the command .
10、“ help ” menu
Just take a look at the menu , For a preliminary introduction, you won't use .
（ 3、 ... and ）、 Options bar
As shown in the figure PhotoshopCS6 Tool options bar , Choose different tools , The settings on the tool options bar will also have different parameters .
Pictured , What we chose is “ Move tool ”, So the options bar is full of “ Move tool ” Some parameters of . Of course , When you choose other tools , In the options bar are the parameters of other corresponding tools .
（ Four ）、 hold-all
As shown in the figure above , That is to say Photoshop Toolbox , Including the rectangular marquee tool 、 Move tool 、 Lasso tools 、 Magic wand tools 、 Cutting tools 、 Pipette tools 、 Smudge repair brush tool 、 Brush Tool 、 Stamp tools 、 History Brush Tool 、 Eraser tools 、 Gradient tool 、 Fuzzy tools 、 Dilution tools 、 Pen tools 、 Text tools 、 Path selection tool 、 Rectangle tool 、 Grab tools 、 Zoom tools, etc .
If there is a triangle in the lower right corner of the tool , In other words, this tool is a combination of several tools . such as , I choose the lasso tool , Then right-click to display these stacked tools .
notes ： Shortcut keys for tools in the toolbar ：
rectangular 、 Elliptical Marquee Tool 【M】
Cutting tools 【C】
Move tool 【V】
Lasso 、 Polygonal Lasso 、 Magnetic lasso 【L】
Magic wand tools 【W】
Brush Tool 【B】
Stamp tools 【S】
History Brush Tool 【Y】
Eraser tools 【E】
Fuzzy 、 sharpening 、 Smudge tool 【R】
Lighten 、 deepen 、 Sponge tools 【O】
Pen 、 Free pen 、 Magnetic pen 【P】
written words 、 Words mask 、 Straight text 、 Straight text mask 【T】
Linear gradient 、 Radial Gradient 、 Symmetrical gradient 、 Angle Gradient 、 Diamond gradient 【G】
Pipette tools 【I】
Grab tools 【H】
Zoom tool 【Z】
Temporary use of mobile tools 【Ctrl】
Temporary use of grab tools 【 Space 】
Sometimes you will find that you can't use the shortcut key , Generally, it is because you have enabled Chinese input method , Turn off Chinese input method, you can use .
（ 5、 ... and ）、 Floating palette
As shown in the picture above, it's called the palette , It's very convenient for us to choose “ Color ”、“ Color board ”、“ style ”、“ Layers ”、“ passageway ”、“ route ” Wait for detailed orders .
1）、 About the palette , It can separate , You can also merge , Drag the palette label directly .
2）、 If you make a mess of the tunes , Want it to recover , Just press the “ window -- work area -- Default workspace ” perhaps “ window -- work area -- Reset the panel position ” that will do .
3）、 Show / Hide the palette ：Shift+Tab
（ 6、 ... and ）、 status bar
Pictured above , The status bar contains ： Image display scale 、 file size 、 Floating menu buttons, etc .
PS That's all there is to it , Each version of the interface is similar to this .
（ One ） Definition
Layers ： It's a film that contains elements like text or graphics , Put them in order , Combine to form the final effect of the page .
Layers are actually easy to understand , for instance ： I'm going to draw a cat on the transparent mobile phone film , First step , Find a mobile phone film and draw the cat's head on it , The second step , Find another mobile phone film and draw the cat's figure on it , The third step , Keep looking for a mobile phone film and draw the cat's tail on it , Then fold the three transparent mobile phone films , You'll get a complete picture of the cat , Each of these pictures of the mobile phone film is called a layer .
Why don't you finish with one , What's the advantage of dividing into three pictures ？
After dividing it into layers , I can individually move or modify specific areas that need to be adjusted , The rest of the area is completely unaffected , This will improve the efficiency of the revision , Reduce the cost of repairing drawings .
The relationship between images and layers ： Let's use the above example to illustrate , Three mobile phone films make up a complete image of the cat , Finally, we call it the image after it is stacked up , And each individual film is called a layer （ In other words, the image contains layers , An image can have many layers ）.
（ Two ）、 species
Include ： Background layer 、 Normal layers 、 Text layer 、 Shape layer 、 Adjust and fill layers .
1、 Background layer ： It's the layer you choose as the background , We don't usually move the background , therefore ps The default background layer is locked . So in the layers panel, we can see that there is a small lock behind the bottom layer , It's the background layer .（ By default , The background layer cannot be modified ）
notes ： How to modify the background layer
Want to change the background image , You should turn the background image into a normal layer , The operation method is also very simple ： Double click the background image in the layers panel , Then in the pop-up dialog box, click " good ", It can be modified （ It's actually unlocking layers ）.
2、 Normal layers ： Except for the background layer that can't be edited , Later on, the picture layer can be called normal layer .
3、 Text layer ： Just use the word tool , Click in the graphics area PS The text layer will be added automatically .
4、 Shape layer ： It's a layer created with the shape tool or the pen tool . The current shape in the foreground is automatically filled with , We can also easily switch to other colors 、 To fill with gradients or patterns .
5、 Adjust the layer ： It doesn't attach to any existing layers , It's always a layer of its own , If there are no special settings , Adjusting the layer affects all layers below it , It's the same as a normal layer , Mode can be adjusted 、 Add or remove masks , You can also participate in layer blending . In short, it is a way to adjust the graph , Can achieve lossless mapping .
6、 Fill the layer ： You can use solid colors 、 Gradient or fill .
（ 3、 ... and ）、 Layers panel
The layer is in ps It's a very, very important plate , So it's like the picture above , stay ps It occupies a panel on its own at the bottom right of the default interface .
The panel is in layers , We can copy layers 、 Delete 、 Move 、 rename 、 Hide and show 、 link 、 Merge 、 lock 、 Change the style 、 Change transparency 、 Grouping and so on .
1、 Copy of layers
1）、 The easiest way to copy layers , That is to select the layer to copy first , Then press the shortcut key Ctrl+J that will do .
2）、 adopt “ Layers -- newly build -- By copying layers ”
3）、 adopt “ Layers — Copy layers ”
4）、 In the layer palette, drag the layer to the new layer button below to copy .
2、 Layer deletion
1）、 Select the layer and press Delete or BackSpace Key to delete the selected layer .
2）、 Drag the layer directly to the trash can on the layer panel to delete .
3）、 adopt “ Layers -- Delete -- Layers ”.
3、 Layer movement
You can move layers by selecting the move tool directly , And with the help of the up and down keys, you can fine tune .
4、 Layer renaming
stay ps in , The default name of the layer is “ Layers 1”、“ Layers 2” etc. , But often we have a lot of layers when we're revising a drawing , To distinguish between layers , We need to rename the layer .
Rename method ： Double click the layer name in the layers palette , The input box will appear , Then we can switch the input method to rename the layer .（ perhaps , Hold down Alt Double click on the layer palette , The operation interface will pop up a dialog box , Then we can also rename the layer .）
5、 Hiding and displaying layers
Click on the small eye icon in front of the layer , You can hide or show this layer .（ Hold down Alt Click on the small eyes of a layer , All layers except this layer will be hidden ）
6、 Links to layers
Linking is to bundle multiple layers together , A layer moves , All other linked layers also move , The advantage of this is , We don't want to change the relative position of some layers , After selecting the link, you can realize .
Method ： After selecting multiple layers , Click the link button below the layer palette , The selected layers are linked to each other .
7、 Merging layers
1）、 If you want to merge two layers, the easiest thing to do is press the shortcut key Ctrl+E, Note that the name and color of the merged layer is the name and color of the original lower layer .
2）、 If you want to merge all the layers, press the shortcut key Ctrl+Shift+E, It will have no hidden layer merging .
Why merge layers ？
1）. Layers take up a lot of storage space , After merging, the storage will be smaller .
2）. Too many layers make it difficult to find and organize layers .
8、 Layer locking
Four lock buttons on the layer palette , Lock transparency in turn 、 Lock image 、 Lock position and all lock .
1）、 Lock transparency ： Limit editing to opaque parts of the layer .
2）、 Lock image ： Prevent the use of painting tools to modify the pixels of the layer .
3）、 Locked position ： Prevents pixels in the layer from being moved .
4）、 All locked ： Lock all of the above .
9、 The style of the layer
Quick selection ： Double click the layer to zoom in （ Changes made only for this layer ）
The layer style is PS One of the powerful features used to make various effects , It simplifies a lot of operations for us , Use it to quickly generate shadows 、 Relief 、 Luminescence 、 Stereoscopic projection 、 Various texture and scene effects of image effects .
share 10 Styles
(1) Projection : Will be the object on the layer 、 Add a shadow to the text or shape . The projection parameters are determined by " Mixed mode "、" The opacity "、" angle "、" distance "、" Expand " and " size " And so on , You can get the desired effect by setting these options .
(2) Inner shadow : Will be in the object 、 Add shadows to the inner edges of text or shapes , Let the layer create a concave appearance .
(3) Shine out : From the layer object 、 Add a shape or glowing effect to the text . Facility parameters let objects 、 Better text or shape .
(4) Endoluminescence : From the layer object 、 Add a shape or glowing effect to the text .
(5) Bevels and reliefs :" style " The drop-down menu will add various combinations of highlights and shadows to the layer
" Bevels and reliefs " Dialog style parameters are explained as follows .
① The outer slope : Along the object 、 The outer edge of a text or shape creates a 3D bevel .
② Inner slope : Along the object 、 Create a three-dimensional slope on the inner edge of text or shape .
③ Relief effect : Create a combination of outer and inner slopes .
④ Pillow relief : Create the invert effect of the inner bevel , The object is 、 Text or shapes seem to sink .
⑤ Stroke relief : Only for stroke objects , That is, when the stroke relief effect is applied, the stroke effect is turned on .
(6) Luster : Shadow will be applied to the interior of the layer object , Interact with the shape of the object , Usually create regular wave shapes , Produces a smooth finish and metal effect .
(7) Color overlay : A color will be superimposed on the layer object , That is, fill the object with a layer of solid color . from " Set overlay color " Options can be made by " Choose the overlay color " Dialog to select any color .
(8) Gradient overlay : A gradient color will be superimposed on the layer object , That is, fill the object with a layer of gradient color . adopt " Gradient editor " You can also choose to use other gradient colors .
(9) Pattern overlay : The pattern will be superimposed on the layer object , That is to fill the object with the same repeated pattern . from " Pattern picker " You can also choose other patterns .
(10) Stroke : Use color 、 Gradient colors or patterns depict objects on the current layer 、 The outline of a text or shape , For shapes with clear edges ( Text ), This effect is especially useful .
10、 Fill and opacity of layers
Opacity adjusts the opacity of the entire layer , Adjusting it affects all objects in the entire layer , For example, reduce the opacity to 0, So get a blank . And filling just changes the opacity of the filled part , Adjusting it only affects the original image , It doesn't affect the adding effect , For example, a shadow effect has been added to an image , Lower the fill to 0, The filled graph disappears , But the shadow effect of the layer style is still , That's the difference between the two .
11、 Grouping of layers
The grouping of layers is also easy to understand , for instance , There are too many things on our desktop , First, it looks too chaotic , It's too inconvenient to find things , Then we'll create a few new folders , Sort things out on your desk , Put it in the folder . And it's the same with the grouping of layers , Because some images contain many layers , It's not easy to find each layer exactly , So we're grouped into groups , For example, divide the text into groups , Divide the pictures into groups , Divide the path layer into groups and so on . Using layer group can solve the problem of too many layers 、 Too long layer palette problem .
The layer is ps A very important part of , In the beginning , If you master so much, you can .
（ One ） The definition of constituency
1、 district ： When editing images , Some pixels in the layer need to be processed , Select this area separately , The selected part is called the constituency .
notes ： Constituencies are closed areas , It can be any shape , But there are no open constituencies .
2、 Ant line ： stay PS in , The constituency is represented as a closed, swimming, dotted area , Because the dotted line looks like a swarm of moving ants , It's called ant line .（ Pictured ）
notes ： Within the selection area is the ant line , That is, the part that can be edited , Beyond the ant line are protected areas , That is to say, this part cannot be edited .
The constituency is also easy to understand , Is to select an area in the layer , for instance ： I'm going to show you , A little yellow man in the middle of the image is taken out and placed on another picture , How to operate ？
I need to create a constituency , There are many options and tools , I choose “ Quick selection tool ”, Then select the yellow man in the middle , Get a constituency surrounded by an ant line , Then I can choose “ Move tool ”, Then drag the little yellow man directly onto another picture .
The application of constituencies
（ Two ）、 Types of constituencies
Include ： Regular constituencies and irregular constituencies
（ 3、 ... and ）、 The basic nature of the constituency
1、 The establishment of constituencies
（1）、 Regular constituencies ： Rectangular marquee tool 、 Elliptical Marquee Tool 、 Single line Marquee Tool 、 Single column Marquee Tool .
These marquee tools are used to create simple geometric selection .
notes ：1）、 Each of the above marquee tools is held down shift when , The constituencies are established in a proper way ( Perfect circle 、 Square ).
2）、 Each of the above marquee tools is held down Alt Key time , It's all about creating constituencies that extend from drawing the center of the constituency .
3）、 Each of the above marquee tools is held down shift and Alt when , It's a normal constituency extended from the center of the drawn selection .
（2）、 Irregular constituencies （ Arbitrary constituency ）： Magic wand tools 、 Lasso tools 、 Polygonal Lasso Tool 、 Magnetic Lasso Tool 、 Quick selection tool 、 Pen tools .
These marquee tools are used to create more complex geometry selection , Start with “ Magic wand tools ” To illustrate how these tools are applied to constituencies .
a、 Magic wand tools
such as ： I'm going to create a selection for the leaf on the left in the image below , And then put this leaf in another background , The magic wand tool will be used here .
What the magic wand does ： In short, it's the same color . That is to say, where you click the color , The software will automatically get the same color in the nearby area , Put them in a constituency .
Scope of application ： The color difference between the image and the background is obvious , Or a single background color , Or the image boundary is clear .
principle ： By creating constituencies , Copy the selection or delete the background color to get the image .
shortcoming ： For loose hair , Graphics with more detailed edge requirements , The matting effect is not good .
Usage method ： Click on “ Magic wand ” Tools , adjustment “ tolerance ” value , Click on the background color to show a virtual frame surrounding the background color , Invert the selection and execute the copy command , You can pick out the desired image .
Other effects that use magic wands to create constituencies to pick ：
b、 Lasso tools
Pictured , It's used to create free-form constituencies . for example ： Here we randomly created a brush like character “ mountain ” The constituency of .
Usage method ： Press the left mouse button in the workspace and drag arbitrarily , When you let go, you can create a selection that matches the drag trajectory . If you're not happy with the constituency , Press Ctrl+z You can cancel this selection .
c、 Polygonal Lasso Tool
It's used to create regular polygon selections . for example ： Here's a random creation like “ fish ” Polygonal selection of .
Polygonal Lasso Tool
Usage method ： Press the left mouse button in the workspace and click anywhere , There will be a straight line between the two click points , Until the last click coincides with the first , You can form a polygon selection . If you're not happy with the constituency , Press Ctrl+z You can cancel this selection .
（4）、 Magnetic Lasso Tool
It's used to create a selection of images with obvious edges , Generally speaking, it means , Move the mouse along the edge of the object , When the starting point is closed , It will form a constituency . For example, using “ Magnetic Lasso Tool ” Set up the following constituencies .
Magnetic Lasso Tool
notes ： Actually “ Quick selection tool ” and “ Pen tools ” You can also create more complex constituencies , Especially the pen tool is a universal selection tool , This one will be introduced later .
2、 The operation of the constituency
The operation of the constituency
Pictured above ,a. Create a new constituency ,b. Plus constituency ,c. Reduce the constituency ,d. Constituencies intersect .
a. Create a new constituency
b. Plus constituency
c. Reduce the constituency
Reduce the constituency
d. Constituencies intersect
3、 The movement of constituencies
First make sure that the current selection tool , Then press the left mouse button in the selected area and drag it to the new location , Or use the direction key to fine tune .
4、 The storage of constituencies
In one picture , When a full constituency is established , If you want to save this constituency , Just click ：“ choice --- Storage selection ”, As shown in the figure, a dialog box will appear , Enter text to set the name , Click on determine , The saved selection will be saved with this image .（ Open this picture later , You can load the selection you just saved ）
The storage of constituencies
5、 Loading of constituencies
When you need to load a stored selection , Just click ：“ choice --- Load selection ” that will do .
Eclosion principle ： It's to make the connection between the inside and outside of the constituency empty , It has the effect of natural connection .
Why did the constituency emerge ： The images we often deal with are all dot graphs , So it's serrated at the edges , This makes the image look stiff , So we often use feathering to eliminate the aliasing .
Feather shortcut key ：Ctrl+Alt+D
Shortcut key for deselecting ：Ctrl+D
So is the constituency ps A very important part of , It involves a lot of tools , In the beginning , If you master so much, you can .
（ One ）、 The definition of a filter
Filter ： It's for the effect of embellishment and artistic pictures , Used to achieve various special effects of images . Generally speaking, it is to filter the original picture by art , Get a more perfect display .
（ Two ）、 Types of filters
Photosho There are two types of filters :
1、 Internal filters ： That is to say Photoshop Self contained filter .
such as ： Draw out 、 liquefaction 、 Stylized 、 Fuzzy 、 Rendering 、 And so on .
2、 External filter ： We need to download 、 It can only be used after installation .
such as ： Page roll 、 Frame 、 Text Effect 、 bubble 、 Raindrop 、 Irregular fragments 、 Feather 、 Natural sky 、 lightning 、 Constellation 、 Puzzles and so on .
1、 When installing the external filter ： Some external filters will be directly installed in the filter Photoshop Under the table of contents , Some external filters do not have automatic search Photoshop The function of directory , So you have to choose the installation path manually , Pay attention to the installation of ：Photoshop To Plug-Ins Under the directory .
2、Plug-ins： plug-in unit
3、 The external filter is quite outstanding ：Eye Candy4000 Filter 、KPT series 、extensis Filter 、Page Curl Filter 、Alpha Strip Filter 、Mask Pro 2.0 Filters, etc .
（ 3、 ... and ）、 Some specific applications of filters
The main functions are ： Enlarge the image to be processed 、 narrow 、 Distortion 、 Deformation, etc. , For example, the face becomes thinner and fatter , The protrusion of eyeball and the decrease of eye , The actual effect is to distort the image .
The effect is as follows ：
2、 Oil Painting
The main functions are ： By replacing pixels and by finding and increasing the contrast of the image , Create a painting or Impressionist effect in a constituency .
The effect is as follows ：
The main functions are ： Soften a selection or image , Fade the boundaries of different colors in the image , In order to cover up the defects of the image or create a special effect .
The effect is as follows ：
The main functions are ： Make the image produce a three-dimensional mapping cloud image , Refract images and simulate light reflection , You can also use grayscale files to create textures for filling and so on .
The effect is as follows ：
The main functions are ： Capture different pixels in an image or selection , And integrate it into the surrounding images .
The effect is as follows ：
The main functions are ： All kinds of distortions to the image , Similar to the Impressionist school .
1、 Wave filters : Make the image wave distorted .
2、 Ripple filters : Can make the image produce a water ripple like effect .
3、 Glass filters : Make the image look like you're looking through the glass , This filter cannot be applied to CMYK and Lab Pattern image .
4、 Ocean ripple filters : Make the image produce a normal ocean ripple effect , This filter cannot be applied to CMYK and Lab Pattern image .
5、 Polar filters : The coordinates of the image can be converted from plane coordinates to polar coordinates or from polar coordinates to plane coordinates .
6、 Squeeze the filter : Make the center of the image bulge or concave .
7、 Diffuse light filter : Add transparent background color particles to the image , Spread out the bright area of the image and add , To produce a similar luminous effect . This filter cannot be applied to CMYK and Lab Pattern image .
8、 Shear filters : You can control the specified points to bend the image .
9、 Spherical filters : You can make the image in the center of the selection produce a convex or concave spherical effect , It's like squeezing filters .
10、 Water wave filters : Make the image produce concentric circular ripple effect .
11、 Rotate twist filter : Make the image rotate and twist .
12、 Replacement filter : It can bend , Fragmented image effects . The special thing about the displacement filter is that after setting it , You also need to select an image file as the displacement map , The filter moves the image pixels according to the color values on the displacement map .
The effect is as follows ：