Reading notes of "photographic notes by Ning Si Xiaoxiao"

2020-11-17 21:13:27  作者:Photography post course
  • The shorter the focal length ( The smaller the numerical ), The bigger the perspective
  • The longer the focus ( The greater the numerical ), The smaller the angle of view
    1. fisheye
      It's suitable for big scenes
    2. Ultra wide Angle
      24mm The following focal length , Big perspective , Great for big scenes 、 Architecture 、 scenery
    3. 24mm and 28mm
      Standard wide-angle focal length , It's suitable for shooting scenery ,24mm comparison 28mm Better , The focal length of the whole body image
    4. 35mm
      Human eye , General wide angle , Little wide angle , Master's focus , The focal length of the whole body image
    5. 50mm
      Standard lens , Master's focus , The focal length of the bust
    6. 85mm
      The focal length of the portrait , Can have a very good background effect , Good image cutting ability , And keep a proper communication distance with the model , It is mainly used for model's big head photo or close-up .
    7. 100mm
      Macro lens of insects and other subjects , And it won't cause too much perspective .
    8. 135mm
      Take portraits , Need to be far away from people , Suitable for close ups of characters .
    9. 200mm and 300mm
      long-focus , Distant scenery
    10. Super long distance
      300mm above , Wild animal 、 Sports theme .

The equivalent focal length is obtained by multiplying the lens conversion coefficient by the actual focal length .
The whole picture =1.0
APS-C nikon 、 SONY 、 Pentax 、 Fuji, etc =1.5 Canon =1.6
1 Inch sensors =2.7

Wide angle lens can make the picture have a strong sense of depth , A telephoto lens will flatten the picture .

Barrel distortion occurs when shooting square objects at wide angle , The pillow distortion will appear when shooting square objects with long focus end .

Distortion is to make a straight line curve , And perspective is to make the vertical line .


    1.  Clear and distinct themes
        2.  Attention is directed to the subject
        3.  Try to be as concise as possible 、 Simplify the picture
     *  #### Angle of view ####
    *  When the foreground is too much, you can squat down and shoot from a low angle .
         *  Near and far away , Take a picture of your face from above .

Tone is the light and shade of a picture , Bright for high profile , Dark for low-key , No light or dark is the middle tone .
Middle tone = The middle point between the extreme white and the dark =18% ash

The unit of exposure compensation is EV,18% Gray for 0EV,+1EV yes 0EV Twice the brightness ,+2EV yes +1EV Twice the brightness . Every time 1EV The difference is the relationship between twice the brightness . Use intelligent metering .

Exposure in the program (P block )、 Aperture priority (A block 、Av block )、 Shutter priority mode (S block 、Tv block ) Press the exposure compensation button to adjust the exposure compensation .

With camera controlled tone = aperture × Shutter × Sensitivity

Parameters of lens brightness , Aperture value f/= The focal length / Aperture
The bigger the aperture in words , The number f/ The smaller it is .
The larger the aperture , Aperture value ( The number ) The smaller it is , The larger the aperture , The more exposure .
Aperture ratio f/2.8 The big one is the big aperture (f/1、f/1.4、f/2、f/2.8)
Aperture ratio f/8 Small is a small aperture (f/8、f/11、f/16、f/22、f/32)

The shutter is the exposure time .
The faster the shutter is , The shorter the exposure time , The smaller the exposure .
The slower the shutter is , The longer the exposure time , Relatively speaking, the greater the exposure .
Than 1/250 Second fast is high speed shutter .
Than 1/60 Second slow is slow shutter .

Sensitivity is the sensitivity of a sensor to light , In the camera, the corresponding is ISO value .
commonly ISO The standard value of is ISO100, Some manufacturers have ISO The standard value is ISO200.

The law of reciprocity is to change the aperture in proportion at the same time 、 Shutter and sensitivity, but the exposure value remains unchanged .

Keep the exposure constant :

  1. The sensitivity remains constant , Open up the aperture 1 At the same time, the shutter speed is faster 1 block .
  2. The aperture doesn't change , Increased sensitivity 1 At the same time, the shutter speeds up 1 block .
  3. The shutter speed doesn't change , Open up the aperture 1 At the same time, the sensitivity is reduced 1 block .

Av、A block Aperture priority : Set the tone ( Exposure compensation ) And aperture , The camera automatically selects the appropriate shutter speed .
Tv、S block Shutter priority : Set the tone ( Exposure compensation ) And the shutter , The camera automatically selects the right aperture .
M Manual ( Manually control the aperture 、 Shutter )

Because there is no adjustment of sensitivity during shooting , So the photographer adjusts the tone through the aperture and the shutter .

  1. Adjust the tone , Turn the auxiliary dial wheel to adjust the exposure compensation directly .
  2. Adjust the aperture , Turn the main wheel .

Take portraits : Large aperture for shallow depth of field , Empty the background .
Take pictures of the landscape : A small aperture and a wide angle give you a deep depth of field , Make the scenery clear from far and near .

  1. Adjust the tone , Turn the auxiliary dial wheel to adjust the exposure compensation directly .
  2. Adjust the shutter , Turn the main wheel .

High speed shutter : Solidify a dynamic moment .
Slow shutter : Highlight the dynamic effect , Drag the background to blur the effect .

Use it when you can't use the camera to measure light M block .
The full moon needs to be shot very low , Exposure compensation is often better than -5EV Lower , Use almost constant parameters to shoot :ISO 200
f/5.6 1/500s.
When shooting the stage, the lights shine , Camera metering data is constantly changing , Use M Block the exposure , Set the exposure parameters manually according to the exposure parameters of the camera at the moment of white light .

Only use under the following special circumstances M block :

  1. When the ambient light changes frequently
  2. When using the flash
  3. Beyond the exposure compensation adjustment range
  4. Fixed exposure parameters

Use different exposure modes , To make it easier for you to shoot in some scenes , Instead of abusing yourself .

Three properties of light :

  1. Strength
  2. Direction
  3. Color temperature

It should not be used too much in portrait photography , Because the direct light from the front will eliminate all shadows on the face , Flatten the face , So it's also called Pingguang .
And the blue sky can show rich colors only when it is smooth , So the blue sky needs to be photographed in the light .

The side light is usually used in the modeling of people's photography , Can let the person's face present the stereoscopic effect , On the one hand, it shows the texture of the skin , On the other hand, it is easier to depict the edges and corners of the face , Make the face very solid .

90° Side lights are special lights used to emphasize the contrast between light and shade , Used to express the texture of the surface of the subject .

There is often a misty feeling when shooting against the light , And form a warm tone , But it will form a thick haze , Lowering the tone will allow the haze to dissipate .

Color temperature refers to the scale of light color . Blue is a cool color , But the color temperature is high , Red is a warm color , But the color temperature is low .

white balance (WB) The initial skill is to restore white objects in different color temperatures to real white .

Manually adjust the color temperature ,K It's the unit Kelvin .

A lot of scenes are preset inside the camera , For example, clouds represent cloudy , The house represents the shadow , The light bulb represents an incandescent lamp .

Find a white thing as a benchmark white , So many photographers carry a white card in their bags ( Grey cards can also ).

Auto White Balance Automatic white balance , The camera will judge according to the environment , Automatically set white balance . If you shoot RAW Format photos , White balance can be redefined in a computer . therefore AWB+RAW Shooting is a convenient and safe combination .

With sunlight as the light source , But the sun at different times, different weather will have different effect .
Before sunrise and after sunset, the temperature of natural light is very high , The color is cool and charming , But the light intensity is very low , It's mysterious .
The temperature of light and color at sunrise and sunset is very low , The light is warm and soft , The light intensity is low , It's the best time to photograph the sun .
The color temperature of light in the daytime is in the middle , It won't dye the scenery any color , The light intensity is the strongest , It's easy to get colorful colors .
On cloudy or rainy days, the light in the sky is still in the middle of color temperature , But the light intensity is much weaker , There is no strong reflection and no hard shadow .
When shooting people outdoors , Don't have too much light , It's not appropriate to photograph people in the midday sun . You can choose cloudy days 、 An hour after sunrise or an hour before sunset .
Jesus light is also known as the tindal phenomenon , Don't shoot for the light of Jesus , Only when the actual scenery is good can we see that it is good .

Try to use the light to clarify the theme , Highlight the subject , And simplify the picture .
The characteristics of scene light : The light source is complicated , The intensity is generally weak .
Indoor candles , Exposure reduction compensation , Make sure the candle doesn't over expose , The background is completely blackened to simplify the picture , At the same time, the face of the character illuminated by the candle should be reflected .
For light sources, it's complicated , To analyze the color temperature of the light source and the direction of the light source .

The flash index is an index that indicates the intensity of a flashing light , use GN Value representation .
Increased sensitivity 2 block ( Change to the original 4 times ),GN The value becomes the original 2 times .
The aperture is bigger 2 block ( The aperture value becomes the original 1/2),GN The value becomes the original 2 times .
The distance is reduced to the original 1/2,GN The value becomes the original 2 times .
GN Value difference 1 times , Intensity difference 2EV.

If the subject is white and bright , In order to expose the subject accurately , To add exposure compensation . If the subject is dark , So we should reduce the exposure compensation properly . namely “ White plus black minus ”.

Light ratio refers to the proportion of light received by the dark and bright parts of the scene .

Take a portrait against the light , Increase exposure compensation , Make your face normal , The background is dead white .
It can also be taken in silhouette , Normal exposure or subtraction exposure compensation , The outline of a person should be clear , Form a silhouette .

Normal exposure is achieved by reducing the contrast .
Improve the dark part mainly through artificial light or the use of ambient light as the main body of light . For example, when shooting a portrait against the light , You can use reflectors 、 The flash 、 Continuous light source and even window light to brighten the main body , Reduced the light ratio .
The way to dim the light is to block the light from the bright part into the lens , Like shooting sunrise and sunset , Use a medium gray gradient mirror to dim the bright area . Half of the medium gray gradient mirror is a light blocking medium gray mirror , Half of it is transparent , The transition area is gradual . The other way is “ Shake the black card ”, Use a black cardboard that doesn't reflect light , In the picture, the bright area is constantly shaking , Suitable for long exposure , And it takes a lot of practice .

The reasons for the contrast of large light ratio outdoors are :1、 The sun is too strong .2、 Backlight shooting .

High-Dynamic Range High dynamic range , High tolerance , Take several different exposures in one scene , Take care of the bright and the dark , All the details , And then it's made into a piece . Light region selection “ underexposure ” One of the , General area selection “ normal ” One of the , Dark area selection “ Overexposure ” One of the , Reduce the contrast naturally .

  1. HDR The highest level of perfection is to look comfortable , I can't see it's HDR Of .
  2. Camera shooting HDR, It will automatically generate a HDR After the photo , But it's better to keep the original , It can be modified later .
  3. Later Software HDR, The more photos exposed, the better ,RAW Than JPG good .
  4. HDR Try to focus only on the scenery , Don't have anything moving in the picture .
  5. Not for sake of HDR and HDR.

Light painting requires long exposure in dark light , Because the environment is dark , So the picture is in a low tone state with insufficient exposure , At the same time, during the long exposure period , The photographer uses luminescent objects to depict a given pattern in the environment , Form light painting .

  1. How long is the exposure time ?
    The exposure time is mainly to be able to finish the light drawing action calmly , It is mainly related to three factors , The first is the brightness of the ambient light , I usually look for something dark , Generally speaking, the lower the sensitivity, the better , In this case , The aperture is basically fixed .
  2. How bright is the illuminant used ?
    This is determined by the aperture shutter sensitivity , If you actually measure the light, it must be the best .

Use two or more independent exposures in the same photo , Then overlap the amount of light per exposure , The technique that eventually appears in a single photograph .

When shooting a person , This man is very small in the picture , Then focus on him as a whole .
When we shot a close-up , What's most important to the character —— Just focus your eyes .

  1. Depth of field and aperture 、 The focal length 、 The shooting distance is related to .
  2. The depth of the foreground is shallower than that of the back ( short ), The front is easy to be empty , The latter is not easy to be empty .
  3. With the shooting distance 、 The focal length 、 The change of aperture and other parameters , The background is deep and changes quickly , The prospect is deep and the change is slow .
  4. If the depth of field is small , The real area is small , It's called shallow depth of field .
    If the depth of field is large , The real area is big , It's called deep field .

The background is far away , The camera is close to , Large aperture , The focal length is long .

The farther the background is from the subject, the more blurry it becomes .

The closer the camera is to the subject , The shallower the depth of field , The more obvious the effect of background weakening .

A large aperture can produce a virtual effect .

A short angle is a wide angle , Long focal length is long focus .

Hyperfocus is when you focus at infinity , The nearest clear distance to you .

  1. Determine the focal length and aperture needed to shoot the scene , In the process of looking for the hyperfocal length until the shooting is completed, neither the aperture nor the focal length can be changed .
  2. Adjust the camera or lens to manual focus , At the same time, adjust the focus to infinity .
  3. Take a picture of a scene with depth , Play back the photo and find the nearest clear object .
  4. Switch to auto focus , Focus on this object .
  5. Switch to manual focus , At this time, the focus distance of the lens is the hyperfocal length , Just keep this focus distance and shoot .

When the subject is moving at high speed , It often takes a very fast exposure time to solidify the action of the subject .

Maximum flash sync speed —— The shutter has the fastest speed at which it can all be opened at any moment , At this shutter speed or slower than this shutter speed, it can make the flash light illuminate the whole picture .
High speed flash sync is almost done all the way to 1/8000 Advanced function of synchronous flash in seconds .

You can record the track of city road lights , Clear field shooting of star orbit , Spray the water in the morning or sunset , The waterfall becomes a waterline . Use tripod to fix .
The characters stand still , Background the subway is moving ,1/10s, The combination of real and virtual .
Shooting sports scenes , Set the shutter to 1/15s, The lens moves with the subject and remains in a position in the picture , Press the shutter at the right time and keep moving in sync .

After the front curtain opens , Exposure begins , And then the flash flashes , Freeze frame , And then the rear curtain closed , The exposure is over .

Emphasis on large subjects or symmetrical structures , In vertical composition, symmetry can also be used in the middle of the composition , When the subject is a circle, the middle method is usually used to compose the picture , Put the body of the circle in the middle .

“ well ” Four intersections and four lines are extremely important , The subject is placed in the center of vision .
Horizontal main line , It's often the horizon 、 Horizontal lines and so on , If the scenery on the ground or on the sea is more important , Put the horizon or horizontal line on the upper third line , To make sure there is enough space on the ground and on the sea . If the sky part of the picture is more important , Just put the horizon or horizontal line on the lower third line .
Always let the subject face the more open side .

There is no single clear subject in the picture , The subject may be a group of the same things , This group of subjects will be photographed in the picture .
You can also use the relationship between the virtual and the real to highlight one of the individual objects , Although out of focus , As long as it is repeated continuously, this same kind of object can also be regarded as repetition .
So repetition must be simple .

If there are obvious lines converging in the picture , Try to put the main body on the convergence point of the line , This can achieve the effect of highlighting the subject . You can also shoot the line convergence point disappear , Produce a natural remoteness .

The elements or lines in the picture form triangles , The whole picture looks stable , The bottom of the triangle is parallel to the bottom of the picture .
A diagonal line in the middle of the picture will appear unstable , But if you put it on one side of the picture, it will stabilize .

The above contents are for personal understanding, arrangement and learning , Please indicate the original author when quoting .

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