The author participated in Yang Shoujing's calligraphy art exhibition in Wuhan Art Museum
On Yang Shoujing's calligraphy art
Yang Shoujing （1839 year 5 month 27 Japan —1915 year 1 month 9 Japan ）, Yidu County, Hubei Province （ It's time for the city ） People from Lucheng town , It's called Kaike , Bang Mingkai , Change its name to Shoujing , No, I don't know 、 Xingwu 、 Heart and matter , Self appointed sea watcher 、 Watching sea life 、 Master Ke Li, etc . In his later years, he built a library next to the snow hall in Sudongpo, Huangzhou, Hubei Province , So it's called “ The old man of Linsu ”. Outstanding historical geographer in late Qing Dynasty and early Republic of China 、 Epigraphy philologist 、 Catalog edition scientist 、 Calligrapher 、 Quan numismatist 、 A bibliophile . Yang Shoujing studied hard all his life , have wide learning and a retentive memory , He is famous for his research , It's a collective place 、 Jinshi 、 calligraphy 、 Spring money 、 A great scholar of books collection and tablet bibliography . Zhu Shijia, former deputy director of Hubei Provincial Museum of literature and history, commented that ：“ Over the past hundred years, those who have been in charge of historical geography have been unable to give a correct explanation .” Luo Zhenyu, a modern scholar, called Yang Shoujing 《 Geography 》 With Wang Niansun 、 Duan Yucai's 《 Primary school 》 And Li Shanlan's 《 Mathematics 》 Together for the Qing Dynasty “ Three unique skills ”.
He also edited 《 Map of the evolution of public land in the past dynasties 》、《 The map of the evolution of the public land in the past dynasties 》 and 《 The water classics are illustrated 》 etc. . He wrote all his life 83 There are so many kinds , Known as the “ The first person who was a beginner in the late Qing Dynasty ”, Representative work 《 Water classics annotate and dredge 》, It is a monument in the history of Li studies . Yang Shoujing's calligraphy is among his many achievements , Maybe not in the first place , But this does not affect it in the history of Chinese calligraphy “ I'm also arrogant , High up in the seat ”（ Yu Yifu ） The status of . In Japan, , He was hailed as “ The father of the modernization of Japanese calligraphy ”①、“ The ancestor of modern Japanese calligraphy ”②、“ A great benefactor of Japanese calligraphy ”③.
Through the in-depth study of Yang Shoujing's calligraphy theory and practice as well as his collection of calligraphy ink , Get the following beneficial enlightenment ：
One 、 The combination of inscriptions and inscriptions is the magic weapon of calligraphy .
From the history of calligraphy , Most calligraphers attach great importance to calligraphy . And there was the Qing Dynasty , Daxing Stele Study , Some people refuse to post in the south , Set the tablet against the post , And Yang Shoujing always sticks to the tablet and respects it , Aestheticism is fashion , Break through prejudice , The vision is high . therefore , His calligraphy has both form and spirit , It's brilliant .“ It has the vigour of the stone tablet , Like a knife and an axe , There is also the elegant style of calligraphy , Rather heroic but not obsequious ”（ Chen shangmin language ）.“ Calligraphy in the Six Dynasties , They all take advantage of the side front ”.“ The so-called hidden front , It's not what Feng means in the painting , Cover is like a cone painting sand 、 Such as inkpad 、 Break the hairpin 、 House leak mark is called . Later generations asked for the theory of Zang Feng but could not , He became a center to be . And those who learn it , Books must be bad . Not to mention others , Try to see the two kings , There's a stroke in the air ？ Only the side front opens and closes 、 There is Yin and Yang 、 Back to back 、 There is a turning point 、 Light and heavy 、 There is a collection 、 There is a pause , The ancients can use this , Ruo Feng in the painting , It's a letter pen , There is no need to be able to , Ann can penetrate the back of the paper ？” Yang Shoujing's above book theory is quite crucial , It can be said that it is enlightening . Former member of the Central Museum of culture and history 、 Edited by Zhonghua Book Company 、 According to Ma zonghuo, a philologist ：“ The letter of Xingwu's patriarchal clan system , The running script is slightly vertical , It's better to see Qinxi as a better place , Small real books are not as good as .” Ma Zong Huo said that Yang Shu was patriarchal in Tang Dynasty and Ouyang Xun （ The letter book ）, But there's no basis , Maybe according to the characteristics of his calligraphy . Yang's running script is better than Weng Fanggang （ No. Qinxi ）. Weng Fanggang and Liu Yong 、 Tiebao 、 Yongxuan is known as “ Four great calligraphers in the middle of Qing Dynasty ”, His calligraphy began to learn from Yan Zhenqing , Later, he learned from Ouyang Xun . The royal family of the Qing Dynasty said ：“ Weng Qinxi Mo imitates the three Tang Dynasties , The only face left is .” Bao Shichen said ：“ Wan Ping （ Weng is from Wanping, Beijing ） Books are only the ears of craftsmen …… No pen is my own .” Yang Shoujing also commented on ：“ Weng Qinxi has seen and heard a lot , It's between a stroke and a painting , Not at all , Small print is very good . I don't think it's very talented , Although the quality is thick enough , But it's not so wonderful .”
Weng Fanggang's calligraphy does not matter his skill , Or the spirit , They are all inferior to Yang Shoujing . Yang Shoujing's calligraphy is the patriarchal clan of Ouyang Xun , It's good , But he didn't just learn from Ouyang Xun , It's a hundred schools in Guangzhou , There are more than steles to learn , There are also posts . His 《 The origin of regular script method 》 In the book 、 The monument is a total of 718 Kind of , Twenty thousand words in regular script . There is Wei in the post 4 Kind of , Jin 34 Kind of , Qi 、 beam 4 Kind of , Sui Dynasty 3 Kind of , The tang dynasty 36 Kind of , The five generation 1 Kind of , common 83 Kind of ; The stele has Han Dynasty 、 Shu 、 Wu 4 Kind of , Jin 37 Kind of , The northern and Southern Dynasties 214 Kind of , Sui Dynasty 27 Kind of , The tang dynasty 346 Kind of , The five generation 8 Kind of , common 636 Kind of . While he was sorting and appreciating , Naturally, I will study and study . He was in 《 The inscription of Pingbei 》 Zhongping stele 288 Kind of ,《 Pingtieji 》 Comments on the post 96 Kind of , common 384 Kind of , We must also read and study one by one , It's a kind of learning , How can we just believe in the patriarchal clan ？ He was in 《 Rengui gold stone postscript 》 In the said ：“ Yu Shao is good at inscriptions , Every time you get something , It must be verified for it …… And play with his calligraphy .” So in its 《 Hormonal flying Pavilion Pingbei 》 in , There is often “ Play with the strokes ”、“ Play with this monument carefully ” The content such as . He taught Chinese calligraphy in Japan , It mainly spreads Beibei all the way , How can he not learn from the stele ？ He stressed that ：“ The tablet of the husband , The remains of the ancients are also ; Post collectors , The impact is also ; The essence is the offspring , If you are not refined, you will feel your ears . It's better to see the remains than to see the ruminant , It is better to see posterity than to see remains . It's a long way to go , To seek a milli awn in addition to denudation , It must be cut back . Therefore, the collection of calligraphy and steles , The two beauties of harmony , Two injuries away from .” It can be seen that he was a tablet with two inscriptions .
He highly praised Su Dongpo's calligraphy , Predicate “ Since there is a word first , It's very popular , There are also many people to irrigate …… All in ‘ When the two queens won the crown alone , Open up a fresh outlook ’”. Another cloud ：“ I tasted that there was no vulgarity in Po Gong , I know that he was immersed in the Six Dynasties .” So highly praised , How can we not learn ？ In fact, we can see the influence of Su Dongpo from his calligraphy . Yang Shoujing's calligraphy can be traced back to the calligraphy of Qin, Han, Wei and Jin Dynasties , I learned from Ouyang Xun 、 c 、 Su Dongpo ; On the basis of Stele Study , Taking calligraphy as the form , Plus his personal “ High quality ”、“ Learn to be rich ”, Gather the good of all , For a family , Thus formed its own unique calligraphy style ： Simple and elegant, simple and scholarly , Calm and bold .
Two 、 Calligraphers should have a high level of comprehensive cultivation .
Calligraphers of all ages have concluded that they should have some attainments in calligraphy , Must have “ The third is to ”, That is, one needs talent , Second, we should see more , Third, write more . stay 《 Learn from books 》 In the introduction of a Book , Yang Shoujing affirmed the three important points of our predecessors , Two more things need to be done , That is to say, one must have high quality , He thinks that “ If you have high quality, you will write elegant , Don't fall into the dust ”, Second, learn to be rich ,“ There are many things in the chest , The air of books , Nature overflows between the lines ”. This is its decades on calligraphy 、 The feeling of life . Mr. Yang Shoujing not only learned to be rich , And high quality . Yang Shoujing is in calligraphy , Seal script, Li script, regular script and running grass are all good at , But its most characteristic is regular script . His disciple Xiong Huizhen called Yang Shoujing “ Calligraphy handed down from generation to generation is ancient and luxuriant , The Han and Wei dynasties , incomparable ”. Although it's a little over praised , But there is still a glimpse . In its chronology “ Book seekers follow the door , too many things for the eye to see , And then night ” The record of , We can know the influence of his calligraphy at that time . Mr. Chen shangmin, President of Hubei yangshoujing Research Association, is particularly fond of Yang Shoujing's handed down calligraphy , He said “ In the late Qing Dynasty , It can be said that it is carrying on the past and forging ahead , The art industry alone ”. The reason is that they are knowledgeable . As a calligrapher , Only learn to be rich , The talent is high , Only eye height , Talent is high . Yang Shoujing is just like this . He said ：“ Read more and write more , You can read more famous books ”, This is a wise saying . There is no doubt that , His extensive knowledge has laid a solid foundation for his outstanding achievements in calligraphy .
3、 ... and 、 Calligraphy should be based on the study of tradition .
Yang Shoujing admonished later generations , Learning calligraphy is like the calligraphy of the former sages “ Writing for Xiao , Word to word , Finally, the layman also ”. What he wrote 《 The origin of regular script method 》, A magnificently 14 volume , Catalog 1 volume . He is exploring the origin of regular script , It's also about the transformation of words 、 The innovation of calligraphy .“ Gu 《 Li Bian 》（ Written by Gu Aiji in the Qing Dynasty ）, It's all in rhyme , It's easy to find , However, it is complicated , It is not enough to see the changes of the eight methods ”.“ The steles of the Tang Dynasty in the Northern Dynasties each have a stele of physique , There's the body of the monument , There are bound to be no admittance , You can be good at the same time , If the word "Northern Dynasty" was used 、 One character Tang stele , It's not a matter of composition , This book is intended to make scholars understand the changes of calligraphy ”. Yang Shoujing has repeatedly discussed calligraphy in this book “ change ”, Its new ideas naturally overflow between the lines . His calligraphy fully embodies the importance of both inscriptions and inscriptions 、 He is good at learning from the ancients to develop new Calligraphy Theories and the spirit of exploration with courage to practice , It also reflects his profound education and noble quality .
① See Japanese calligrapher Xiaomu Taifa 《 A brief talk on Modern Japanese calligraphy 》 One article , Published in Hong Kong 1981 year 《 Book book 》 Total number 37 period .
②1990 year 9 month 18~23 Japan , In memory of its founding, the Japanese Academy of calligraphy education 40 Anniversary of the , Held in Tokyo, Japan “ Calligraphy exhibition of Yang Shoujing and his friends ”, The invitation says “ The ancestor of modern Japanese calligraphy ”.
③ see 1737 Tokyo ordinary society, Japan 《 Calligraphy 》 The first 4 Volume No 11 Number 《 Special issue of Yang Shoujing 》.
Reference material ： Rongbaozhai Publishing House 《 Complete works of Chinese calligraphy 》73、 Hubei people's Publishing House 《 Yang Shoujing's calligraphy is collected in Hubei Provincial Museum 》、 Hubei people's Publishing House 《 Research on Yang Shoujing's calligraphy art 》、 Chen Chuanxi 《 Yang Shoujing's calligraphy and its great influence in Japan 》（ Chinese calligraphy magazine 2016 In the first 2 period ） etc. .
Typical case study
Yang Shoujing signed by himself “ Master Ke Li ” and “ The Taoist of watching the sea ” Of
A case study of calligraphy works
Yang Jingneng's collection of documents and his collection , Only found that the calligraphy works were signed as “ Master Ke Li ” and “ The Taoist of watching the sea ” Of 1 Pieces of . therefore , Case studies are necessary , Dispel doubts , To find out .
The background of calligraphy creation
According to the compilation of Hubei Provincial Museum 、 Published by Hubei people's publishing house 《 Yang Shoujing's calligraphy is collected in Hubei Provincial Museum 》 One book contains 《 Yang Shoujing's memorabilia 》 Described ,1911 year 8 month 19 The Wuchang Uprising broke out in the revolution of 1911 , In the same month 22 Japan , Yang Shoujing's family and his disciple Xiong Huizhen arrived in Shanghai by ship from Wuchang . In Wuchang, the collection of books, inscriptions, calligraphy and paintings were handed over to Cheng Dongjia , And the Japanese Temple West Xiu Wu asked Li Yuanhong to post a notice at the head of the door to protect Yang Shoujing's books , And seal it . Yang and his party arrived in Shanghai , Living in Hongkou ganhanchen's home . Japan's Fukuda people Shuiye Meimei came to Shanghai to learn calligraphy from Yang Shoujing , Yang's first words were old illness , After feeling its sincerity , Do it yourself 《 Learn from books 》. Shuiye Suo Yang Shoujing's poem , Double Ninth Festival 、10 month 9 Japan , Yang Shoujing twice went to Wuchang to pick up clothes and most important books , The war in Wuhan is in full swing , In vain . The whole family lives on Yang alone , Most of them are bought by Japanese .11 month , Yang Shoujing tells himself 《 Chronology 》 Yuhongkou trip . Carved into 《 Geographical details of the past dynasties 》34 book .12 month , moment 16 Guo and Liang 、 Chen 、 The Northern Qi Dynasty 、 Northern Zhou Dynasty 、 The tang dynasty 、 The five generation 、 The song dynasty 、 liao 、 gold 、 The map of each dimension .
In the first year of the Republic of China (1912) In the spring , Yang Shoujing sent the children back to Hubei , Fortunately, there is no great loss in the collection . take 《 Water classics annotate and dredge 》 manuscript , And deliver the books to Shanghai . Xiong Huizhen and his grandchildren came to Shanghai one after another , With the young's school, we have revised 《 Water classics annotate and dredge 》, A detailed account of each piece makes , I'm afraid it's wrong , At night, the lamp bed was still , Holding a roll in bed , Review it over and over again or stay up all night . I heard that Yang was in Shanghai , There is an endless stream of book seekers , Or if you hold an ancient tablet, please identify it and ask for a postscript , There are many Japanese . is , By Yang 《 Geographical details of the past dynasties 》 Carved into .
In the second year of the Republic of China, GUI Chou (1913), Yang Shoujing has 75 year .2 month , Shen Zengzhi got Zhu school edition 《 Note the water 》, The Yang family is in 2 month 27 I made a postscript , On the same day 《 Note the water 》 Postscript .
It can be seen from the above historical data that , Yang Shoujing went to Shanghai from Wuchang Uprising to Guichou in the second year of the Republic of China (1913) In the spring , I have been busy with the collation and writing of geographical documents 《 Water classics annotate and dredge 》 The revision of . meanwhile , I have to deal with an endless stream of readers ( Of course, this is also his main source of income in Shanghai ). According to the information we have , Yang Shoujing created a large number of calligraphy works this year , Before and during this period, he organized historical and geographical data and compiled by himself 《 Water classics annotate and dredge 》 The revision work of , At this time, his calligraphy shows his respect for Li Daoyuan, a geographer of the Northern Wei Dynasty , Sign your name “ Master Ke Li ”, It's also logical , Nothing surprising . It's just that we haven't verified the name of Yang Shoujing's Library in Shanghai . Since he built a library next to the snow Hall of Su Dongpo's former residence in Huangzhou “ Next to Suyuan ”, He built a library in Juwan, Wuchang “ Guanhaitang ”, In Shanghai, it is reasonable to build a library and take a name . Sign off “ The Taoist of watching the sea ” Because his library in Wuchang is called “ Guanhaitang ”, So it's easy to understand . Why did you sign “ Master Ke Li ”? Our inference , The library he built in Shanghai may be ” Ke Li X”. Maybe he didn't stay in Shanghai for a long time , Then he went to Beijing to work , Few people know the name of the library built in Shanghai , stay 《 Chronology 》 And other historical materials have not been recorded yet . Fortunately, I left my signature “ Master Ke Li ” Such a rare treasure , It provides valuable material evidence for us to study Yang Shoujing's calligraphy and the name of the library in Shanghai .
The origin and interpretation of calligraphy works
Yang Shoujing's own signature “ Master Ke Li ” Calligraphy works , We first met in 2017 year 5 month 28 Tokyo central auction ( Hong Kong ) At a limited company auction , Later, it was collected by our research group . The work is a vertical axis , Paper book , Original mounting . Size :140cm×38cm, The age of creation : Gui Chou （1913） do . Welcome to ： Guichou, the master of Ke Li in spring .
Seal ： Yang Shoujing （ white ）、 The old man of Linsu （ zhu ）
annotations ： The white stone is steep and steep , Biwu and Cuizhu are mixed in the evening . Rain and clear know that there are mountain people , Send children to sweep the fallen flowers .
Identification and appreciation of calligraphy works
Our research group has paid attention to Yang Shoujing's calligraphy work , Referring to the appraisal established by Yang Shoujing “ Four methods ”( Seal law 、 Mo Jian fa 、 To learn from the law 、 Material identification method ) Identified . Judging from the seal , These two are printed on 《 Yang Shoujing's calligraphy is collected in Hubei Provincial Museum 》 There are descriptions in one book and the size is exactly the same after comparison , The seal of the name is marked as 72 One 76 Year old with seal , Font size printing “ The old man of Linsu ” Marked as 73 One 76 Year old with seal , He was working with Yang Shoujing when he created this calligraphy work 75 Age matched . From the use of ink , The work is dark , It's full of antiquity , It should be a hundred years old . Compare this work with Yang's works of the same year , The style is exactly the same , And the habit of using pen and small movements also confirm each other . such as “ white 、 brigitte 、 child 、 Li 、 Fine ” And the blank knot of ,“ Shanren ” In a sentence “ people ” A little gap in the word ,“ On the evening of 、 First 、 son ” The last stroke of the word is back to the front , It's Yang Shoujing's signature style . From the material point of view , Paper is old paper , Mounting is a typical mounting method in the Republic of China , It's not Japanese mounting , It can be seen that it spread to Japan after mounting in China during the period of the Republic of China .
in summary , Yang Shoujing's special work , It is in line with his later mature period 、 Calm and calm 、 Elegant and quiet features , The spirit of pen is enough , Full “ Volume Qi ”, It is a good calligraphy work of Yang Shoujing in his later years .
Some friends said that this banner may be one of the few screens lost in the group , Right enough , We then learned that the same collector had a signature for “ The Taoist of watching the sea ” Another screen of , And this one “ Master Ke Li ” The bar screen is a pair of screens , So negotiate the transfer , Lost group of the screen finally reunited .
Reference material : Edited by Hubei Provincial Museum 《 Yang Shoujing's calligraphy is collected in Hubei Provincial Museum 》、 Chief Editor Liu Zhengcheng 《 Complete works of Chinese calligraphy 》、 Zhao Ping 《 Research on Yang Shoujing's calligraphy art 》、《 Chinese calligraphy 》 The magazine 2016 In the first 2 period ( total 275 period )、 Japan's worry free study 1987 Published in 《 Yang Shoujing's handwritten postscript collection 》(I、II) etc. .
appendix ： Pictures of Yang Shoujing's calligraphy works
One 、 Yang shoujingshu 《 Xiangyang xijiachi 》
Two 、 Yang shoujingshu 《 Wang Qiaoyun mountain 》
3、 ... and 、 Yang Shoujing comes to 《 Cuanbaozi stele 》
Four 、 Yang Shoujing's calligraphy couplet
5、 ... and 、 Yang Shoujing's three overseas books
（ One ）
（ Two ）
（ 3、 ... and ）
6、 ... and 、 Yang Shoujing's calligraphy has six screens
7、 ... and 、 Yang Shoujing's letter , Mr. Jin boxing's inscription
8、 ... and 、 Yang Shoujing wrote Wang Wei's poems 《 Zhongnan is not in business 》