On Yang Shoujing's calligraphy art

2020-11-17 21:04:48  作者:Photography skills

The author participated in Yang Shoujing's calligraphy art exhibition in Wuhan Art Museum

On Yang Shoujing's calligraphy art

Liu Yang

Yang Shoujing (1839 year 5 month 27 Japan —1915 year 1 month 9 Japan ), Yidu County, Hubei Province ( It's time for the city ) People from Lucheng town , It's called Kaike , Bang Mingkai , Change its name to Shoujing , No, I don't know 、 Xingwu 、 Heart and matter , Self appointed sea watcher 、 Watching sea life 、 Master Ke Li, etc . In his later years, he built a library next to the snow hall in Sudongpo, Huangzhou, Hubei Province , So it's called “ The old man of Linsu ”. Outstanding historical geographer in late Qing Dynasty and early Republic of China 、 Epigraphy philologist 、 Catalog edition scientist 、 Calligrapher 、 Quan numismatist 、 A bibliophile . Yang Shoujing studied hard all his life , have wide learning and a retentive memory , He is famous for his research , It's a collective place 、 Jinshi 、 calligraphy 、 Spring money 、 A great scholar of books collection and tablet bibliography . Zhu Shijia, former deputy director of Hubei Provincial Museum of literature and history, commented that :“ Over the past hundred years, those who have been in charge of historical geography have been unable to give a correct explanation .” Luo Zhenyu, a modern scholar, called Yang Shoujing 《 Geography 》 With Wang Niansun 、 Duan Yucai's 《 Primary school 》 And Li Shanlan's 《 Mathematics 》 Together for the Qing Dynasty “ Three unique skills ”.

He also edited 《 Map of the evolution of public land in the past dynasties 》、《 The map of the evolution of the public land in the past dynasties 》 and 《 The water classics are illustrated 》 etc. . He wrote all his life 83 There are so many kinds , Known as the “ The first person who was a beginner in the late Qing Dynasty ”, Representative work 《 Water classics annotate and dredge 》, It is a monument in the history of Li studies . Yang Shoujing's calligraphy is among his many achievements , Maybe not in the first place , But this does not affect it in the history of Chinese calligraphy “ I'm also arrogant , High up in the seat ”( Yu Yifu ) The status of . In Japan, , He was hailed as “ The father of the modernization of Japanese calligraphy ”①、“ The ancestor of modern Japanese calligraphy ”②、“ A great benefactor of Japanese calligraphy ”③.

Through the in-depth study of Yang Shoujing's calligraphy theory and practice as well as his collection of calligraphy ink , Get the following beneficial enlightenment :

One 、 The combination of inscriptions and inscriptions is the magic weapon of calligraphy .

From the history of calligraphy , Most calligraphers attach great importance to calligraphy . And there was the Qing Dynasty , Daxing Stele Study , Some people refuse to post in the south , Set the tablet against the post , And Yang Shoujing always sticks to the tablet and respects it , Aestheticism is fashion , Break through prejudice , The vision is high . therefore , His calligraphy has both form and spirit , It's brilliant .“ It has the vigour of the stone tablet , Like a knife and an axe , There is also the elegant style of calligraphy , Rather heroic but not obsequious ”( Chen shangmin language ).“ Calligraphy in the Six Dynasties , They all take advantage of the side front ”.“ The so-called hidden front , It's not what Feng means in the painting , Cover is like a cone painting sand 、 Such as inkpad 、 Break the hairpin 、 House leak mark is called . Later generations asked for the theory of Zang Feng but could not , He became a center to be . And those who learn it , Books must be bad . Not to mention others , Try to see the two kings , There's a stroke in the air ? Only the side front opens and closes 、 There is Yin and Yang 、 Back to back 、 There is a turning point 、 Light and heavy 、 There is a collection 、 There is a pause , The ancients can use this , Ruo Feng in the painting , It's a letter pen , There is no need to be able to , Ann can penetrate the back of the paper ?” Yang Shoujing's above book theory is quite crucial , It can be said that it is enlightening . Former member of the Central Museum of culture and history 、 Edited by Zhonghua Book Company 、 According to Ma zonghuo, a philologist :“ The letter of Xingwu's patriarchal clan system , The running script is slightly vertical , It's better to see Qinxi as a better place , Small real books are not as good as .” Ma Zong Huo said that Yang Shu was patriarchal in Tang Dynasty and Ouyang Xun ( The letter book ), But there's no basis , Maybe according to the characteristics of his calligraphy . Yang's running script is better than Weng Fanggang ( No. Qinxi ). Weng Fanggang and Liu Yong 、 Tiebao 、 Yongxuan is known as “ Four great calligraphers in the middle of Qing Dynasty ”, His calligraphy began to learn from Yan Zhenqing , Later, he learned from Ouyang Xun . The royal family of the Qing Dynasty said :“ Weng Qinxi Mo imitates the three Tang Dynasties , The only face left is .” Bao Shichen said :“ Wan Ping ( Weng is from Wanping, Beijing ) Books are only the ears of craftsmen …… No pen is my own .” Yang Shoujing also commented on :“ Weng Qinxi has seen and heard a lot , It's between a stroke and a painting , Not at all , Small print is very good . I don't think it's very talented , Although the quality is thick enough , But it's not so wonderful .”

Weng Fanggang's calligraphy does not matter his skill , Or the spirit , They are all inferior to Yang Shoujing . Yang Shoujing's calligraphy is the patriarchal clan of Ouyang Xun , It's good , But he didn't just learn from Ouyang Xun , It's a hundred schools in Guangzhou , There are more than steles to learn , There are also posts . His 《 The origin of regular script method 》 In the book 、 The monument is a total of 718 Kind of , Twenty thousand words in regular script . There is Wei in the post 4 Kind of , Jin 34 Kind of , Qi 、 beam 4 Kind of , Sui Dynasty 3 Kind of , The tang dynasty 36 Kind of , The five generation 1 Kind of , common 83 Kind of ; The stele has Han Dynasty 、 Shu 、 Wu 4 Kind of , Jin 37 Kind of , The northern and Southern Dynasties 214 Kind of , Sui Dynasty 27 Kind of , The tang dynasty 346 Kind of , The five generation 8 Kind of , common 636 Kind of . While he was sorting and appreciating , Naturally, I will study and study . He was in 《 The inscription of Pingbei 》 Zhongping stele 288 Kind of ,《 Pingtieji 》 Comments on the post 96 Kind of , common 384 Kind of , We must also read and study one by one , It's a kind of learning , How can we just believe in the patriarchal clan ? He was in 《 Rengui gold stone postscript 》 In the said :“ Yu Shao is good at inscriptions , Every time you get something , It must be verified for it …… And play with his calligraphy .” So in its 《 Hormonal flying Pavilion Pingbei 》 in , There is often “ Play with the strokes ”、“ Play with this monument carefully ” The content such as . He taught Chinese calligraphy in Japan , It mainly spreads Beibei all the way , How can he not learn from the stele ? He stressed that :“ The tablet of the husband , The remains of the ancients are also ; Post collectors , The impact is also ; The essence is the offspring , If you are not refined, you will feel your ears . It's better to see the remains than to see the ruminant , It is better to see posterity than to see remains . It's a long way to go , To seek a milli awn in addition to denudation , It must be cut back . Therefore, the collection of calligraphy and steles , The two beauties of harmony , Two injuries away from .” It can be seen that he was a tablet with two inscriptions .

He highly praised Su Dongpo's calligraphy , Predicate “ Since there is a word first , It's very popular , There are also many people to irrigate …… All in ‘ When the two queens won the crown alone , Open up a fresh outlook ’”. Another cloud :“ I tasted that there was no vulgarity in Po Gong , I know that he was immersed in the Six Dynasties .” So highly praised , How can we not learn ? In fact, we can see the influence of Su Dongpo from his calligraphy . Yang Shoujing's calligraphy can be traced back to the calligraphy of Qin, Han, Wei and Jin Dynasties , I learned from Ouyang Xun 、 c 、 Su Dongpo ; On the basis of Stele Study , Taking calligraphy as the form , Plus his personal “ High quality ”、“ Learn to be rich ”, Gather the good of all , For a family , Thus formed its own unique calligraphy style : Simple and elegant, simple and scholarly , Calm and bold .

Two 、 Calligraphers should have a high level of comprehensive cultivation .

Calligraphers of all ages have concluded that they should have some attainments in calligraphy , Must have “ The third is to ”, That is, one needs talent , Second, we should see more , Third, write more . stay 《 Learn from books 》 In the introduction of a Book , Yang Shoujing affirmed the three important points of our predecessors , Two more things need to be done , That is to say, one must have high quality , He thinks that “ If you have high quality, you will write elegant , Don't fall into the dust ”, Second, learn to be rich ,“ There are many things in the chest , The air of books , Nature overflows between the lines ”. This is its decades on calligraphy 、 The feeling of life . Mr. Yang Shoujing not only learned to be rich , And high quality . Yang Shoujing is in calligraphy , Seal script, Li script, regular script and running grass are all good at , But its most characteristic is regular script . His disciple Xiong Huizhen called Yang Shoujing “ Calligraphy handed down from generation to generation is ancient and luxuriant , The Han and Wei dynasties , incomparable ”. Although it's a little over praised , But there is still a glimpse . In its chronology “ Book seekers follow the door , too many things for the eye to see , And then night ” The record of , We can know the influence of his calligraphy at that time . Mr. Chen shangmin, President of Hubei yangshoujing Research Association, is particularly fond of Yang Shoujing's handed down calligraphy , He said “ In the late Qing Dynasty , It can be said that it is carrying on the past and forging ahead , The art industry alone ”. The reason is that they are knowledgeable . As a calligrapher , Only learn to be rich , The talent is high , Only eye height , Talent is high . Yang Shoujing is just like this . He said :“ Read more and write more , You can read more famous books ”, This is a wise saying . There is no doubt that , His extensive knowledge has laid a solid foundation for his outstanding achievements in calligraphy .

3、 ... and 、 Calligraphy should be based on the study of tradition .

Yang Shoujing admonished later generations , Learning calligraphy is like the calligraphy of the former sages “ Writing for Xiao , Word to word , Finally, the layman also ”. What he wrote 《 The origin of regular script method 》, A magnificently 14 volume , Catalog 1 volume . He is exploring the origin of regular script , It's also about the transformation of words 、 The innovation of calligraphy .“ Gu 《 Li Bian 》( Written by Gu Aiji in the Qing Dynasty ), It's all in rhyme , It's easy to find , However, it is complicated , It is not enough to see the changes of the eight methods ”.“ The steles of the Tang Dynasty in the Northern Dynasties each have a stele of physique , There's the body of the monument , There are bound to be no admittance , You can be good at the same time , If the word "Northern Dynasty" was used 、 One character Tang stele , It's not a matter of composition , This book is intended to make scholars understand the changes of calligraphy ”. Yang Shoujing has repeatedly discussed calligraphy in this book “ change ”, Its new ideas naturally overflow between the lines . His calligraphy fully embodies the importance of both inscriptions and inscriptions 、 He is good at learning from the ancients to develop new Calligraphy Theories and the spirit of exploration with courage to practice , It also reflects his profound education and noble quality .

notes :

① See Japanese calligrapher Xiaomu Taifa 《 A brief talk on Modern Japanese calligraphy 》 One article , Published in Hong Kong 1981 year 《 Book book 》 Total number 37 period .

②1990 year 9 month 18~23 Japan , In memory of its founding, the Japanese Academy of calligraphy education 40 Anniversary of the , Held in Tokyo, Japan “ Calligraphy exhibition of Yang Shoujing and his friends ”, The invitation says “ The ancestor of modern Japanese calligraphy ”.

③ see 1737 Tokyo ordinary society, Japan 《 Calligraphy 》 The first 4 Volume No 11 Number 《 Special issue of Yang Shoujing 》.

Reference material : Rongbaozhai Publishing House 《 Complete works of Chinese calligraphy 》73、 Hubei people's Publishing House 《 Yang Shoujing's calligraphy is collected in Hubei Provincial Museum 》、 Hubei people's Publishing House 《 Research on Yang Shoujing's calligraphy art 》、 Chen Chuanxi 《 Yang Shoujing's calligraphy and its great influence in Japan 》( Chinese calligraphy magazine 2016 In the first 2 period ) etc. .

Typical case study

Yang Shoujing signed by himself “ Master Ke Li ” and “ The Taoist of watching the sea ” Of

A case study of calligraphy works

Yang Jingneng's collection of documents and his collection , Only found that the calligraphy works were signed as “ Master Ke Li ” and “ The Taoist of watching the sea ” Of 1 Pieces of . therefore , Case studies are necessary , Dispel doubts , To find out .

The background of calligraphy creation

According to the compilation of Hubei Provincial Museum 、 Published by Hubei people's publishing house 《 Yang Shoujing's calligraphy is collected in Hubei Provincial Museum 》 One book contains 《 Yang Shoujing's memorabilia 》 Described ,1911 year 8 month 19 The Wuchang Uprising broke out in the revolution of 1911 , In the same month 22 Japan , Yang Shoujing's family and his disciple Xiong Huizhen arrived in Shanghai by ship from Wuchang . In Wuchang, the collection of books, inscriptions, calligraphy and paintings were handed over to Cheng Dongjia , And the Japanese Temple West Xiu Wu asked Li Yuanhong to post a notice at the head of the door to protect Yang Shoujing's books , And seal it . Yang and his party arrived in Shanghai , Living in Hongkou ganhanchen's home . Japan's Fukuda people Shuiye Meimei came to Shanghai to learn calligraphy from Yang Shoujing , Yang's first words were old illness , After feeling its sincerity , Do it yourself 《 Learn from books 》. Shuiye Suo Yang Shoujing's poem , Double Ninth Festival 、10 month 9 Japan , Yang Shoujing twice went to Wuchang to pick up clothes and most important books , The war in Wuhan is in full swing , In vain . The whole family lives on Yang alone , Most of them are bought by Japanese .11 month , Yang Shoujing tells himself 《 Chronology 》 Yuhongkou trip . Carved into 《 Geographical details of the past dynasties 》34 book .12 month , moment 16 Guo and Liang 、 Chen 、 The Northern Qi Dynasty 、 Northern Zhou Dynasty 、 The tang dynasty 、 The five generation 、 The song dynasty 、 liao 、 gold 、 The map of each dimension .

In the first year of the Republic of China (1912) In the spring , Yang Shoujing sent the children back to Hubei , Fortunately, there is no great loss in the collection . take 《 Water classics annotate and dredge 》 manuscript , And deliver the books to Shanghai . Xiong Huizhen and his grandchildren came to Shanghai one after another , With the young's school, we have revised 《 Water classics annotate and dredge 》, A detailed account of each piece makes , I'm afraid it's wrong , At night, the lamp bed was still , Holding a roll in bed , Review it over and over again or stay up all night . I heard that Yang was in Shanghai , There is an endless stream of book seekers , Or if you hold an ancient tablet, please identify it and ask for a postscript , There are many Japanese . is , By Yang 《 Geographical details of the past dynasties 》 Carved into .

In the second year of the Republic of China, GUI Chou (1913), Yang Shoujing has 75 year .2 month , Shen Zengzhi got Zhu school edition 《 Note the water 》, The Yang family is in 2 month 27 I made a postscript , On the same day 《 Note the water 》 Postscript .

It can be seen from the above historical data that , Yang Shoujing went to Shanghai from Wuchang Uprising to Guichou in the second year of the Republic of China (1913) In the spring , I have been busy with the collation and writing of geographical documents 《 Water classics annotate and dredge 》 The revision of . meanwhile , I have to deal with an endless stream of readers ( Of course, this is also his main source of income in Shanghai ). According to the information we have , Yang Shoujing created a large number of calligraphy works this year , Before and during this period, he organized historical and geographical data and compiled by himself 《 Water classics annotate and dredge 》 The revision work of , At this time, his calligraphy shows his respect for Li Daoyuan, a geographer of the Northern Wei Dynasty , Sign your name “ Master Ke Li ”, It's also logical , Nothing surprising . It's just that we haven't verified the name of Yang Shoujing's Library in Shanghai . Since he built a library next to the snow Hall of Su Dongpo's former residence in Huangzhou “ Next to Suyuan ”, He built a library in Juwan, Wuchang “ Guanhaitang ”, In Shanghai, it is reasonable to build a library and take a name . Sign off “ The Taoist of watching the sea ” Because his library in Wuchang is called “ Guanhaitang ”, So it's easy to understand . Why did you sign “ Master Ke Li ”? Our inference , The library he built in Shanghai may be ” Ke Li X”. Maybe he didn't stay in Shanghai for a long time , Then he went to Beijing to work , Few people know the name of the library built in Shanghai , stay 《 Chronology 》 And other historical materials have not been recorded yet . Fortunately, I left my signature “ Master Ke Li ” Such a rare treasure , It provides valuable material evidence for us to study Yang Shoujing's calligraphy and the name of the library in Shanghai .

The origin and interpretation of calligraphy works

Yang Shoujing's own signature “ Master Ke Li ” Calligraphy works , We first met in 2017 year 5 month 28 Tokyo central auction ( Hong Kong ) At a limited company auction , Later, it was collected by our research group . The work is a vertical axis , Paper book , Original mounting . Size :140cm×38cm, The age of creation : Gui Chou (1913) do . Welcome to : Guichou, the master of Ke Li in spring .

Seal : Yang Shoujing ( white )、 The old man of Linsu ( zhu )

annotations : The white stone is steep and steep , Biwu and Cuizhu are mixed in the evening . Rain and clear know that there are mountain people , Send children to sweep the fallen flowers .

Identification and appreciation of calligraphy works

Our research group has paid attention to Yang Shoujing's calligraphy work , Referring to the appraisal established by Yang Shoujing “ Four methods ”( Seal law 、 Mo Jian fa 、 To learn from the law 、 Material identification method ) Identified . Judging from the seal , These two are printed on 《 Yang Shoujing's calligraphy is collected in Hubei Provincial Museum 》 There are descriptions in one book and the size is exactly the same after comparison , The seal of the name is marked as 72 One 76 Year old with seal , Font size printing “ The old man of Linsu ” Marked as 73 One 76 Year old with seal , He was working with Yang Shoujing when he created this calligraphy work 75 Age matched . From the use of ink , The work is dark , It's full of antiquity , It should be a hundred years old . Compare this work with Yang's works of the same year , The style is exactly the same , And the habit of using pen and small movements also confirm each other . such as “ white 、 brigitte 、 child 、 Li 、 Fine ” And the blank knot of ,“ Shanren ” In a sentence “ people ” A little gap in the word ,“ On the evening of 、 First 、 son ” The last stroke of the word is back to the front , It's Yang Shoujing's signature style . From the material point of view , Paper is old paper , Mounting is a typical mounting method in the Republic of China , It's not Japanese mounting , It can be seen that it spread to Japan after mounting in China during the period of the Republic of China .

in summary , Yang Shoujing's special work , It is in line with his later mature period 、 Calm and calm 、 Elegant and quiet features , The spirit of pen is enough , Full “ Volume Qi ”, It is a good calligraphy work of Yang Shoujing in his later years .

Some friends said that this banner may be one of the few screens lost in the group , Right enough , We then learned that the same collector had a signature for “ The Taoist of watching the sea ” Another screen of , And this one “ Master Ke Li ” The bar screen is a pair of screens , So negotiate the transfer , Lost group of the screen finally reunited .

Reference material : Edited by Hubei Provincial Museum 《 Yang Shoujing's calligraphy is collected in Hubei Provincial Museum 》、 Chief Editor Liu Zhengcheng 《 Complete works of Chinese calligraphy 》、 Zhao Ping 《 Research on Yang Shoujing's calligraphy art 》、《 Chinese calligraphy 》 The magazine 2016 In the first 2 period ( total 275 period )、 Japan's worry free study 1987 Published in 《 Yang Shoujing's handwritten postscript collection 》(I、II) etc. .

appendix : Pictures of Yang Shoujing's calligraphy works

One 、 Yang shoujingshu 《 Xiangyang xijiachi 》

Two 、 Yang shoujingshu 《 Wang Qiaoyun mountain 》

3、 ... and 、 Yang Shoujing comes to 《 Cuanbaozi stele 》

Four 、 Yang Shoujing's calligraphy couplet

5、 ... and 、 Yang Shoujing's three overseas books

( One )

( Two )

( 3、 ... and )

6、 ... and 、 Yang Shoujing's calligraphy has six screens

7、 ... and 、 Yang Shoujing's letter , Mr. Jin boxing's inscription

8、 ... and 、 Yang Shoujing wrote Wang Wei's poems 《 Zhongnan is not in business 》

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